Ground Area Ratio (FAR) is one of the main popular features of urban location, which is often considered simply by urban organizers. This issue is now as one of the major bases of urban advancement policy in Iran within the past the past few years and been emphasized throughout the framework of several city development plans. Therefore , a significant view in this regard is necessary. The most important achievements of the current century in neuro-scientific urban development is looking at citizens rights and qualitative aspects on this factor. nonprofessional disturbance such as selling excessive FAR and uncontrolled and unplanned developments, particularly for housing reasons in most main cities without taking into account the variability and difference of downtown lands and merely pertaining to achieve generating for municipality and profitability of a limited group of buyers have occurred, which will resulted in a decrease in metropolitan environment top quality and insufficient sustainability in the field of security, health and comfort of citizens in environmental domains. Whereas effect of tall structures on city area and citizens in terms of physical, financial, social, city development, etc . is indisputable, therefore , unique focus on metropolitan development laws is required. The purpose of this study includes realizing effecting city laws in relation to FAR and controlling downtown development through examining laws and regulations on SIGNIFICANTLY and tall building building in some sample countries worldwide, to identify changing and suited solutions using global activities. Eventually, through studying Tehran and New York, as two modern urban centers with around similar circumstances and comparing the laws and regulations and way to face issues of downtown development and much, we be familiar with level of success of each regarding this and exactly what more suitable solutions. Study method in this article is definitely combined, in a manner that using study method and documented and library base studies, the kind of information is collected and further examined employing quantitative and qualitative method.
Almost all created and developing countries confront serious complications due to rapid and up and down growth of towns during the latest decades. The difficulties of this sensation not only extensively affected metropolitan development guidelines, but also its outcomes played an important role in economic, sociable, political, managerial and environmental issues from the societies. Concerns on this phenomenon caused the developed countries, especially upon WWII, consider certain procedures to solve or perhaps control this kind of crisis. The primary bases of these measures incorporate policies about tall building construction, mass development, changing taxation laws, enactment of land regulations for optimized usage, improvement and renovation of outdated and central urban areas, plan on preparing royaume of new locations, developing fresh cities, and above all, insurance plan on raising population thickness and FAR of cities. Through reviewing many of these polices, the undeniable function of CONSIDERABLY component in forming and physical aspect and type of the city may be perceived. In these plans, MUCH is determined taking into consideration population anticipated for the master plan horizon and urban creation and downtown region guidelines as well as looking at environmental sizes, services and infra-structural urban installations and social, economic, and cultural characteristics. Consequently , focusing the key role of housing in the city and urban organizing, focusing location of FAR in jobs, its part and importance in downtown area business and factors and standards affecting similar and legal discussion regarding this are essential. Various existing limitations in a city results in restrictions to acknowledging population for that city and its suburbs, when due to the same reason, the regulations in level of authorized construction in urban expansion plans is famous and therefore, the owners happen to be prohibited to create excessive building considering their construction allows.
- Identifying factors affecting CONSIDERABLY
- Clarifying SIGNIFICANTLY concept since urban creation tool for housing jobs
- What are the effective requirements to determine CONSIDERABLY?
- Can the requirements effective in modern urban design be performed through looking at common legal aspects of MUCH in the studied countries?
Whereas here is info of synthetic, quantitative and qualitative mother nature and collecting data has become fulfilled through research technique and written about and library studies, which may have further recently been studied, consequently , the study technique in this article features combined type.
Placement of MUCH in Urban Development Principles: In general, the idea of density inside the urban planning literature in the context of land use planning within the category of housing code regulations may be the subject addressed the spatial distribution of elements, capabilities and activities in cities. (Flame, Metropolitan Management Quarterly, 2008, g. 36). Attentiveness in city design also has a great influence on all three facets of the artifact environment, its function, their form and meaning. This kind of effect is achieved through the level of consumer activity in the functional aspect, and the options for controlling the amount, height and spacing of buildings, in the dimension in the form throughout the dimensions of performance and in the semantic dimension and artifact environment.
Height: The height of buildings as one of the contiguous parameters on CONSIDERABLY is one of the most critical factors in organizing urban landscape. This criterion, in proportion to the number of building flooring surfaces, is a even more precise control tool that should be designed with view to adjacent buildings and street features. The impact of creating height on creating a feeling of space enclosure is usually significant. The sense penalized enclosed in space is basically based on the relation involving the eye range from the height of the attaching body of space.
Building Mass and Amount: This is one of the other criteria handling FAR, which in turn plays an essential role in urban type and perspective. This qualifying criterion focuses handling volume and distribution of superstructure about ground place.
Level: It is another one of the variables influenced by density, which is a complex, multi-faceted and comparative measure. So that it can be a combination of the main conditions such as mass and volume level, height, gradient etc . This way, the effects of building density on the physical dimension are more evident. Disturbance in physical places and city form and landscape is one of the negative effects of increasing building density.
Floor Area Ratio (FAR) This is the rate of the total infrastructure construction of a fragment to the total area of that piece. (Zo Eshtyagh, 98. 4) The index of construction thickness is shown as a percentage. The effects of increasing the denseness on the city form contain spatial alter, a cultural organization, mass and space. The effects of increasing density in urban panorama are as follows: Height collection, bonding in the walls, scale, granularity, hemisphericity of buildings. Therefore , if increased construction density, devoid of comprehensive planning, can cause disruptions in the citys space and body. The formation of the physical composition of urban bodies, without concern of qualitative and quantitative aspects, will lead to the creation of discrete and unconnected urban areas and imprudencia and extraordinary towers. This is certainly clearly noticeable in enclosure projects.
Elements effective in Categorization
- Determine the denseness in each area relating to their type of operation
- Determine the quantity of land essential for important metropolitan functions just like trade, sector, residential sector and other downtown activities (Shokouti, 1994, g. 343)
- The height of buildings, the measurements of segments, the street size, the supply region and the range of buildings in each building
- The location and capacity with the lines of installations and main roadways (Zyari, 2009, p. 67)
The idea of determinism (ecology) with the city, considering its size and human population density and high properties, causes the mental and emotional disorders of the citizens, which in turn weaken social relationships, Superficial, apparent, and so on. Nevertheless combinators claim that ecological factors do not perform an effective position in sociable relationships, and this differences in sociable behavior of people derive using their own qualities and features. Sub-cultural theory synthesizes two earlier theories that are more consistent with the reality of urban life. The existence of complications from various subcultures under circumstances of loan consolidation can have a similar strong links and honest connections in urban areas and, in some cases, a great abnormal sensation. In high-rise buildings, besides the effects of ecological factors, non-ecological issues as well play a major role. In addition to numerous global experiences, exploration conducted in Iran, largely composed of academics work.