Emanuel kakaounakis essay

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CHAPTER 7

COGNITION & LANGUAGE

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HUBBLE TELESCOPE

-PROBLEM SOLVING

-COGNITION PSYCHOLOGY

-COGNITION

-THINKING & REASONING

-LANGUAGE

THINKING

-ONLY HUMANS CAN CONTEMPLATE, ANALYZE, RECOLLECT OR PLAN

-THINKING= THE MANIPULATION OF MENTAL REPRESENTATION OF INFORMATION

-REPRESENTATION= EXPRESSION, VISUAL PHOTO, SOUND OR OTHER DATA

-REPRESENTATIONS CHANGE INTO A SEVERAL FORM TO PERMIT PROBLEM SOLVING

-WE DO NOT REALLY KNOW HOW THIS KIND OF HAPPENS

-WE DO FIGURE OUT FUNDEMENTAL COMPONENTS

MENTAL PICTURES

-NOT SIMPLY VISUAL BUT AUDITORY AS WELL AS OTHER SENSES

-HAVE MANY OF THE PROPERTIES OF THE REAL OBJECT OR PERHAPS EVENT

-WE ARE ABLE TO SHAPE THE IMAGE IMAGE OF AN OBJECT

-CAN BE TAKEN TO IMPROVE NUMEROUS SKILLS

-BASKET BALL TRAINING

-REASERCH SHOWS THAT IT PERFORMS

-PIANO LESSONS, THREE GROUPS, SIMILAR BRAIN SCANS

IDEAS

-ORGANIZE PHENOMENA INTO BASIC CATEGORIES

-CLASSIFY NEW EXPIERIENCE ACCORDING TO PAST EXPIERIENCE

-CAR, BRAND NAME

-INFLUENCE THE BEHAVIOR, WHAT IS APPROPRIATE

-EARLY REASERCH, PRECISE SET OF FEATURES FOR EACH CATEGORY, WITHOUT FEATURES OBJECT DID NOT FIT

-MORE RELEVENT TO THE LIVES ARE MORE AMBITIOUS, HARD TO DEFINE

-THINK OF UNCERTAIN CONCEPTS WE THINK OF AN MODEL

-EXAMPLE= REPRESENTATIVE MODELS, EXAMPLES OF IDEAS THAT MOST PEOPLE WILL CONSENT

-ALLOWS ALL OF US TO THINK ABOUT THE WORLD

JUDGEMENTS

-WASH HANDS 20X PER DAY

-DOCTOR OR MENTAL PATIENT

-FRAME WORK WE ALL EXPIERIENCE THE BEHAVIOR

-CONCEPTS ENABLE US TO DRAW IDEAL CONCLUSIONS

REASONING

-PROCESS BY WHICH INFORMATION IS USED TO BRING CONCLUSIONS AND MAKE DECISIONS DEDUCTIVE

-DRAW INFERENCES FROM A SET OF PRESUMPTIONS THAT ARE AUTHENTIC

-SYLOGISM

-PREMISE CAN BE INNACURATE

-EVEN IN CASE THE LOGIC IS CORRECT THE PREMISE CAN BE WRONG

-EVEN IF REASONING IS NOT SOUND PEOPLE WILL BELIVE IT

-CULTURE PLAYS A SIGNIFICANT ROLE

INDUCTIVE

-USING A CERTAIN EXAMPLE WE MAKE BASIC RULES

-SHERLOCK HOLMES, PARTICULAR CLUES, INFER THE LEGAL

-WE EVERY USE INDUCTIVE REASONING

MENTAL SHORT REDUCTIONS

-ALOGRITHM, GUIDELINE IF ADOPTED WILL GUARANTEE A REMEDY, WE MAY NOT REALLY UNDERSTAND WHY, MATH FORMULAS

-HEURISTIC, A PRINCIPLE, MAY RESULT IN A SOLUTION NEVERTHELESS NO GUARENTEE

HEURISTIC

-CAN BACKFIRE

-REPRESENTATATIVE OF HEURISTIC, JUDGE PEOPLE ACCORDING INTO A CATEGORY, LEAD TO PREJUDICE

-MURDER VS DISEASE PLANE VERSUS AUTO

FIND SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

-TOWER OF HANOI PROBLEM

-HOW CAN WE SOLE LIFES SIMPLE DAILY PROBLEMS

-THREE MAJOR ACTIONS

-PREPARATION

-PRODUCTION OF SOLUTIONS

-EVALUATIONS OF EACH OPTION

PREPARATION

-UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM, ANY KIND OF RESTRICTIONS, VERY WELL DEFINED, MATH OR SICK DEFINED COMPLICATIONS, PEACE IN THE CENTRE EAST

-DEFINED, WELL DEFINE DINFORMATION, THINKING STRAIGHT FORWARD

TYPES OF COMPLICATIONS

-ARRANGEMENT, NUMBER OF ELEMENTS SHOULD BE ARRANGED TO MEET CRITERIA, LURE SAW PUZZLE

-INDUCING STRUCTURE, IDENTIFY THE PARTNERSHIP AMONG COMPONENTS, CONSTRUCT A FRESH RELATIONSHIP

-TRANSFORMATION, CHANGE AN INITIAL STATE USING A SERIES OF METHODS

-ANY PROBLEM INITIAL STAGE OF UNDERSTANDING IS CRITICAL TO PROBLEM SOLVING

-FILTER OUT TRIVIAL INFORMATION TO SIMPLIFY DUTIES

-CRITICAL THE WAY WE REPRESENT THE SITUATION TO OUSELEVES AND THEN PLAN THE INFORMATION

-PRODUCTION, RETRIEVE ANSWER FROM LONG-TERM MEMORY

-TRIAL & PROBLEM, MOST PRIMITIVE METHOD, MAY SPEND A LIFE TIME & NOT REALLY FIND ANSWER

-MEANS AND ANALYSIS, HEURISTIC ONLY WORK IF THERE IS ALSO A DIRECT REMEDY

-SUBGOALS, HEURISTIC, DIVIDE PROBLEM INTO ACTIONS, TOWER OF HANOI

-NOT ALL PROBLEMS CAN BE DIVIDED OR AS WELL COMPLICATED

-INSIGHT, SUDDEN KNOWLEDGE NOT A STEP BY STE PROCESS

-WOLFGANG KOHLER, 1927, CHIMPS

-PRIOR EXPERIENCE TRIAL & ERROR ARE REQUIREMENTS FOR UNDERSTANDING

JUDGEMENTS

-FINAL STEP OF THE PROCESS

-CLEAR SOLUTION, MATH PROBLEM

-IF NOT TANGIBLE, MAKE A JUDGEMENT

-WE ARE NOT ALWAYS THE BEST EVALUATE OF OUR JOB, INFLUENCED SIMPLY BY OUR PAST EXPERIENCE

-CREATE OBSTACLES, BIASES

IMPEDIMENTS TO PROBLEM SOLVING

-DIFFICULT PROBLEM DUE TO PRESENTATION

-THE PRESENTATION WITH THE PROBLEM CAN EFFECT THE EASE OF ANSWER

-WE ALL THINK ALONG A LOGICAL SEQUENCE TO SOLVE PROBLEMS

FUNCTIONAL FLEXEDNESS

-CANDLE PROBLEM, THOUGHT OF THE AS SIMPLY AS A CONTAINER

-PEN, LADIES HOSIERY

-MENTAL SET, DIFFICULTY TH #6, IF SHOWN FIRST YOU SHOULD HAVE UNDERSTAND PROBLEM

-ID PROBLEM on the lookout for DOTS

INCORRECT EVALUATION OF SOLUTIONS

-THREE MILE ISLE, FACULTY KEEP AN EYE ON, EVEN WHEN SECOND MONIOR STATES MELT STRAIGHT DOWN

-CONFORMATION TENDENCY, EFFORT TO RETHINK PROBLEMS, HUMANS HAPPEN TO BE CRAZY

IMAGINATION

-WE WILL GIVE EXAMPLES ALTHOUGH NOT STUDY THEIR PARTS, CAN EASILY STUDY SOME FACTORS

-DIVERGENT THINKING, CREATE UNUSUAL NEVERTHELESS APPROPRIATE ALTERNATIVES

-CONVERGENT CONSIDERING

-WILLINGNESS FOR TAKING RISKS, SUBSTANTIAL PAY OFF OR PERHAPS HIGH EMBARASSMENT

-CONGITIVE COMPLEXITY, PREFERENCE PERTAINING TO INTRICATE & ELABURATE, INTRICATE THINKING PATTERNS

LANGUAGE

-SYSTEMATIC MEANINGFUL ARRANGEMENT OF ICONS

-LEWIS CARROLL non-sense POEM

-CONGNITIVE POTENTIAL NECESSARY FOR CONVERSATION

-LINK BETWEEN HOW WE THINK, UNDERSTAND OUR SOCIETY AND EACH OF OUR LANGUAGE

ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE

-GRAMMAR, SYSTEM OF RULES THAT GOVERN OUR PHRASE

-PHONOLOGY, SOUNDS TO TERMS

-SYNTAX, HOW WORDS AND PHRASES HAPPEN TO BE CONSTRUCTED

-SEMANTICS, MEANING OF WORDS

DIALECT DEVELOPMENT

-BABYS BABBLE, 3-4 MONTHS TO A 12 MONTHS

-VOCALIZE ALMOST ALL POSSIBLE APPEARS IN ALL LANGUAGE

-DEAF KIDS BABBLE

-OTHER LANGUAGE APPEARS DISSAPEAR BY SIMPLY AGE ONE

-AFTER ONE YEAR, PUT WORDS AND PHRASES TOGETHER TO COMMUNICATE

-2 YEAR OLD FEATURES 250 WORD VOCABULARY

-2 12 YEAR OLD, SEVERAL HUNDRED

-5 YEAR OLD HAS LEARNED FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF GRAMMAR

LEARNING- THEORY WAY

-CONDITIONING & RIENFORCEMENT

-BABBLING, ADULTS RIENFORCE CERTAIN SEEMS

-SHAPES THE CHILDS CONVERSATION

NOAM CHOMSKY

-INATE MECHANISM, BORN WITH A LINGUISTIC ABILITY THAT FEATURES AS A RESULT OF MATURATION