Excerpt from Term Paper:
a summary of biographical information about the psychologist Erik Erikson
The work of Erik Erikson is like that of Freud this touches upon the individual development but while Freud analyzed himself, and explained the growth in terms of the very baby, after which this individual assumed that the mind does not adapt or perhaps grow, in the sense of the character, except ego, though him self an spirit psychologist, Erik’s works are different because unlike Freud this individual did not visit the conformative years. Freud did not offer an identity problems which Erik had, and which seems to have dogged him all through his childhood and adolescence. This could be noticed coming from his “career, his theories, and his impact on psychoanalysis, psychology, history, as well as the broader tradition. ” (Douvan, 1997)
There are major factors in his hypotheses that are threaded together. The first is the growth during adolescence, and creation of internal values, building tastes, and nurturing one’s individual talents. This is based on the person’s culture which will also impacts the creation of the individual identity, is basically based upon his very own life experiences. Nevertheless they have had complete influence inside the general thought in developmental psychology. Naturally, he moved far away coming from Freud when he extends not simply the growth and change to children but actually to adults and very mature persons. He proves that life is in continuity and that we change even as undergo various experiences depending on our own person identity. The foundation of these concepts, as stated has a root in the own existence. The impact of history and tradition on development on which he basses the introduction of the ego psychology stems from his own personal history and individual qualities he cultivated. (Douvan, 1997)
Almost all of the theories just like Freud, stems from his very own life. He was marginalized in the childhood and he was searching for his own identity in the U. T. As an immigrant. He had to find civilizations that were totally different from his indigenous culture and his adopted tradition to allow for his expansion even so much about avoid a loyalty pledge for a faculty position in California implies that at the youthful years having been indeed within a psychological injury. There were a whole lot of paradoxon in his very own lie which usually he also available in the society, and this produced his own principles and values, yet at the same time he acknowledged these values of the society that he sensed was conductive to progress. (Douvan, 1997)
That is a crucial fact, since we see the dualistic approach, where the specific raises his own values, from his own experiences or what he or she really wants to be- the ideal and then find the cultural mores which have been acceptable for the ideal. His life as a result can be seen while an alignment between his inner quest, as a young man wandering to find a solution too his deepest yearnings, and the times when he finds that building his identity is a effort and profound process, and this was much more painful along with his issues with his patrimony, as well as the society that marginalized someone without familiar care, combined with fact that his esteem endured actually made an identification crisis. (Douvan, 1997)
The sum of his contribution therefore could be the observation how the individual develops his personality and how these kinds of processes happen to be changed while the person expands, and how the society and environment that is around the person actually creates the individuality, and personal paradigms. Thus the highest inspiration that other individuals have not investigated is the fact a person can change his beliefs, definition of himself and character by simply changing the environment and the self-image that was created by ‘the mass of the society’. (Douvan, 1997)
His observations have weathered criticism as well as the test u time and end of trading scrutiny of researchers. Hence even after more than thirty years after the publication of his book “Childhood and Society, inches Erik Homburger Erikson his book remains the most powerfulk book and theory to get psychologists with this time. There are numerous theories that like his ‘epigenetic’ theory of the periods of individual life, “which models the complex communications among the natural, psychological, and social elements that shape an individual’s lifestyle, is still one of the most comprehensive bank account we have of human creation throughout the life cycle. ” (Erikson; Erikson, 1981) Relating Joan Mowat Erikson, his wife, he is an designer at heart, and also was a curing medium that created several program pertaining to activities for psychiatric patients o which will she is the part. As a result we could say that Eriks hypotheses will stand a better desire with a all natural approach to development although specialists like Watson have gone on to improve upon the concept of personality and society, the foundation was placed by Erik.
2) The psychologist’s theoretical views and research advantages
There is a specific contribution in the definition of not merely the individuality but the approach the human forms his or her spirit, and thus specifies himself or herself. Erik Erikson changed the concept of Ego by watching how the ego maintains it is identity through the human your life cycle. According to him, social pushes also shape the ego, as much as the biological and psychological makes that the human being encounters. Though the model is dependent on the theory of Freud, the distinction is the fact Erikson’s theory differs by Freud’s travel theory plus the motivator is definitely the ego. The biological and social conditions of a person largely identified the personality. The transform with Freud comes with the statement that expansion occurs constantly from labor and birth to death. (Berzoff; Flanagan; Hertz, 2011)
These are based on social relationships, values which can be inherited coming from peers, plus some of these both is conductive to the advancement the spirit or can be restrictive, identity thus is known as a set of habits that turn into accepted and is also a continuity based on principles, integrity and social status. This arises more as a result of the discussion between the person and the interpersonal settings. Hence the affect of a individual’s culture on the formation of his or her identification is important. As a result his stand is that “if everything extends back to the child years then almost everything is they’ve fault, and trust is the power of choosing responsibility by one’s own mind. inches There are many levels of advancement the spirit beginning coming from childhood, which result in learning the environment, produces a unified individuality, and contains a very correct perception of the world. The primary of all this is actually the identity anybody creates within just him or perhaps herself. (Berzoff; Flanagan; Hertz, 2011)
These types of according to the development theory is available in stages from the person’s development and uses a established pattern, and it is foremost formed by the environment and the culture in which the individual finds him self or himself. Erikson added three more important development periods to Freud’s theory of psycho sexual development. Freud’s theory ends with age of puberty, while the developmental theory of Erik includes more than that and suggested that people increase and broaden beyond teenage life too. Although earlier periods of the advancement theory as well insists on the early stages thinking with prominent biological organs and the same psycho sex stages, his difference in approach can be seen in the fact these biological timetables are expanded throughout his life. The critics suggest that some children do not comply with these levels and in circumstances where there happen to be extreme circumstances they don’t appear t expert the environment. They go for negative protection. There are some exceptions in the case of many cases of psychopathology too.
Schlein (1994) in the essay says that Erik Erikson was best known intended for his work with stages of development across the life span; there exists a lesser known, yet significant efforts to the psychotherapeutic method with children, teenagers, and adults, respectively. (Schlein, 1994) That was a broad spectrum in which he enjoyed an active role as a great enquirer. Yoder (2000) contends that “the concept of “barriers” provides a strategies which to describe external influences associated with teenagers and fresh adult ego identity exploration and commitment processes which usually affect and maybe limit person developmental options. ” (Yoder, 2000)
Therefore Erikson’s supposition based on the observation that personality is known as a sum of personal growth and communal change, later researchers like Perico have created the identity status paradigm with socio-cultural variables which may possess impact after individual interior psychological function. (Yoder, 2000) That the ideas are very relevant today is a core from the argument.
3) How these kinds of theories and research may be applied to daily living in 2013
Today the earth is in turmoil in the sense those values that contain bound the society include changed. Today people are in great pressure and have to fit into a ongoing pattern of change. From kids who happen to be pressured to get better education and grades, to families which may have broken up, economic problems and general unrest in culture, the contemporary society has been shown to shape the ego. Hence in the