Ethnic group of bangladesh essay

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Ethnic Number of Bangladesh 1 . Introduction: BANGLADESH IS QUITE RICH IN ETHNIC TRADITION. THERE ARE REGARDING THIRTY-FIVE CULTURAL COMMUNITIES MOVING INTO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE REGION. THE MAJOR CULTURAL COMMUNITIES ARE CHAKMA, MURMA, GARO, SANTAL, HAJONG, TIPRA, KHASI, MURANG, SHENDHU, PANKO ETC . THEY STRUGGLE TO MAINTAIN THEIR LIFESTYLE, CULTURE AND PROTECT DISTINCTIVE RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY FROM THE IMPACT OF THE DOMINATING CULTURE AND RELIGIONS. IN THE NORTH AND NORTHWESTERN BELT OF BANGLADESH A NUMBER OF CULTURAL COMMUNITIES LIVE WHO HAVE TO HAVE DIFFICULTY HARD TO SUSTAIN ALL THEIR ORIGINAL TRADITIONS AND TRADITIONAL HERITAGE.

THE ADIVASIS IN THIS REGION COMPRISES OF SEVERAL GROUPINGS SANTAL, ORAON, MUNDA, MAHALI, MAHATO, MALPAHARA ETC . AMONG THE LIST OF ETHNIC PERSONS IN THE NORTH AND NORTHWESTERN BELT OF BANGLADESH SANTALS ARE MOST SIGNIFICANT IN NUMBER. BUT YOU CANNOT FIND ANY ACCURATE AND RELIABLE STATISTICS REGARDING THEIR VERY OWN ACTUAL POPULACE. THERE IS ALSO A SUPERB DIFFERENCE BETWEEN YOUR OFFICIAL AND UNOFFICIAL CHARACTERS AND QUOTES.

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ACCORDING TO THE AUTHORITIES CENSUS OF 1991, THE ADIVASI POPULACE WAS BELIEVED 3, 18, 337 IN 16 ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICT FROM THE RAJSHAHI DIVISION.

BUT SINCE CLAIMED BY SIMPLY AN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY INNOVATOR, BADLA ORAON OF DINAJPUR ADIVASI ACADEMY, THE NUMBER OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN RAJSHAI DIVISION WAS 3, 222, 000 WAY BACK IN 1984.

A REVIEW REPORT SHOWS THAT THE TOTAL POPULATION OF SANTAL IS 143932 IN DINAJPUR, RAJSHAHI, BOGRA, PABNA AND SOME OTHER AREAS OF BANGLADESH. ACCORDING TO THE OTHER SOURCES, THE TOTAL NUMBER OF SANTALS ARE HIGHER THAN PREDICTED. MOST OF THE SCHOLARS ALSO ASKED THE CREDIBILITY OF THE STATISTICAL DATA. WITHIN THEIR OPINION, THE CENSUS USUALLY TAKES LANGUAGE WHILE THE BASIS FOR IDENTIFYING ANYONE AS BENGALI OR LOCAL. THEY HAVE ALSO ALLEGED THE FACT THAT EXISTING POLICY IS TO DEMONSTRATE NUMBER LESS THAN THE ACTUAL NUMBER. 2 | P a g electronic.

Ethnic Number of Bangladesh installment payments on your Historical Backdrop of the Santals SINCE HOW MUCH TIME THE SANTALS LANDED INSIDE THE TERRITORY OF PRESENT BANGLADESH, IS NOT REALLY PRECISELY NOTED. SOME BELIEVE THAT THE KHERWARS REACHED THE LAND OF BENGAL SOON AFTER THE INITIALLY CLASHES WITH ALL THE INVADING ARYAN TRIBES (2500 B. C. ). JOINTLY PROBABILITY THE SANTALS LANDED IN BANGLADESH WITH THEIR ACTUAL ETHNIC IDENTIFICATION, NOT FOLLOWING 1000 W. C. IT REALLY IS PROBABLE THAT THE SANTALS SCATTERED THROUGHOUT BENGAL AT THE TIME OF THE MUSLIM ATTACK OF THIS REGION DURING THE LAST DECADES OF THE 12TH CENTURY OR PERHAPS AT THE BEGINNING OF THIRTEENTH CENTURY. INSIDE THE WORDS OF FR.

LUIZI PUSSETTO: “THE SANTALS RETIRED PROGRESSIVELY TOWARD MORE PEACEFUL REGIONS OR WHERE IT ABSOLUTELY WAS MORE EASY TO DEFEND [THEMSELVES] THROUGH THE INVADERS¦  IN LATER TIMES, WHILE USING HISTORIC SANTAL REVOLUTION IN 1855 WITHIN THE BRITISH COLONIAL TIME RULE INSIDE THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT, WHEN 35, 000 THOUSANDS OF SANTALS ARE THOUGHT TO HAVE BEEN KILLED, IT REALLY IS BEYOND ANY DOUBT THAT MANY OF THE SANTALS WERE DISTRIBUTED INTO ISOLATED LANDS AND GEOGRAPHICALLY REMOTE TERRITORIES. QUITE A FEW EVEN CROSSED THE WATER GANGES AND END UP IN THE EAST, THE PART OF PRESENT BANGLADESH.

MANY THINK THAT THE EARLY SANTALS CAME TO NORTH BENGAL LOOKING FOR WORK OPPORTUNITIES, PARTICULARLY WHEN THE TRAIN TRACKS HAD BEEN UNDER CONSTRUCTION during the English rule in the second half of the 19th 100 years. This may be one of THE REASONS THAT MOST SANTALS IN BANGLADESH ARE FOUND BUYING BOTH SIDES WITH THE RAILWAY LINES FROM NORTH TO SOUTH.

2 . you THE TERM “SANTAL: ABOUT THE NAME SANTAL, OPINIONS VARY AMONG THE COLLEGE STUDENTS. FOR SKREFSRUD, THE TERM SANTAL IS KNOWN AS A CORRUPTION OF SAONTAR, AND WAS FOLLOWED BY THE TRIBE AFTER THEIR SOJOURN FOR SEVERAL GENERATIONS IN THE AREA AROUND SAONT IN MIDNAPUR. W. W. OLDHAM OPINED THAT SANTAL IS A GREAT ABBREVIATION OF SAMANTAWALA, WHICH HAS ITS ETYMOLOGY FROM SANSKRIT SAMANTA, AN ADDITIONAL NAME GIVEN TO THE COUNTRY AROUND SAONT. O’MALLEY IS OF THE OPINION THAT SANTAL CAN BE AN ENGLISH KIND ADOPTED FROM HINDI WHICH CORRESPONDS WITH THE FORM SAOTAL USED BY THE BENGALI SPEAKING PEOPLE.

MANY ANTHROPOLOGISTS AGREE THAT SANTAL IS A NAME GIVEN TO THIS TRIBE BY SIMPLY NON-SANTALS. YET , SANTALS PREFER TO CALL THEMSELVES HOR WHICH MEANS “HUMAN GETTING OR PERSON.  INTENDED FOR THE SANTALS THE CONCEPT HOR BEARS A RICH CONNOTATION TO MEAN A PERSON WITH FEATURES OF INTELLECT, OF KNOWLEDGE, OF WISDOM; THEY WILL REFER THEMSELVES AS A TRIBE WITH DIGNITY AND FULL HUMAN POTENTIALITY.

THE SANTALS ARE HAPPY WITH THEIR ID THAT SPECIFIES THE CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIFICATION AND UNIQUENESS AS A GROUP. several | G a g e Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh 2 . a couple of ORIGIN, RACE, AND LANGUAGE: AS TO THE “ORIGIN OF THE SANTALS, VERY LITTLE IS FAMOUS FOR CERTAIN. THE SANTALS DON’T HAVE ANY RECORDED HISTORY. LIKE OTHER ANCIENT COMMUNITIES, SANTALS HAVE TRIED TO CHECK OUT THE INSIDER SECRETS OF CREATION, HISTORY AND LIFESTYLE BY MEANS OF MISGUIDED BELIEFS AND TALES. FOLLOWING THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL DATA, SOME AUTHORS CLASSIFY SANTALS SINCE PRE-DRAVIDIAN AND OTHERS AS PROTO-AUSTROLOIDS; AND OTHERS SINCE ABORIGINALS OF THE NORTHWEST.

HENCE, THE THOUGHTS IN THIS RESPECT ARE INCREDIBLY DISCORDANT. THE SANTALS CARRY OUT HAVE THEIR VERY OWN MYTHOLOGY OF CREATION AND SEVERAL BELIEVE THAT THEY EACH HAVE COME BY PILCU HARAM AND PILCU BUDHI, WHICH IS LIKE MANDSPERSON AND EVE IN THE HOLY BOOK. SANTALI MAY BE THE MOTHER TONGUE SPOKEN BY THE SANTALS. IT IS A MUNDA LANGUAGE WITH THE KHERWAR GROUP THAT IS ONE OF THE MUNDA-MON-KHMER OR ‘AUSTRO-ASIATIC’ SUB-FAMILY. BUT THERE ARE OTHER DISTINCT OPINIONS WITH THIS TOO.

IN RESPECT TO D. PRASAD, “SANTALI IS THE MOST WEALTHY DIALECT OF MOST THE TRIBE DIALECTS OF BIHAR.  2 . a few GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: IN BANGLADESH, THE SANTALS ARE FOUND MOSTLY IN NORTH BENGAL (NORTHERN COMPONENT TO BANGLADESH) PARTICULARLY IN THE THEN HIGHER DISTRICTS OF DINAJPUR, RANGPUR, BOGRA, AND RAJSHAHI.

ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS OF 1881, THE SANTALS COME PRESENT IN THE DISTRICT OF KHULNA, PABNA AND CHITTAGONG IN THE SOUTH. MANY DECLARE THE SANTALS, WHO WILL BE IN SYLHET, ARE THE KINDS WHO MIGRATED FROM THE ZONES MENTIONED ABOVE AND CAME RIGHT HERE MAINLY TO WORK IN THE TEA HOME GARDENS AS LABORERS. IN SHORT, THE SANTALS OF BANGLADESH HAPPEN TO BE ALMOST ALL PRODUCED FROM THOSE EMIGRATED FROM THE SANTAL PARGANA IN INDIA AND NOTHING DISTINGUISHES THESE PEOPLE FROM THOSE PEOPLE WHO ARE STILL LIVING THERE, WITH THE EXCEPTION, MOST LIKELY OF THE MAKE USE OF BANGLA WORDS THAT ARE SANTALIZED.

IN RECENT TIMES SOME OF THE BANGLADESHI SANTALS ALSO BEGAN GOING ABROAD ACQUIRING EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES. some | S a g e Cultural Group Of Bangladesh 3. THE WORLDVIEW THE SANTALS ARE BASIC AND UNSOPHISTICATED PEOPLE. SIMILAR TO OTHER PEOPLE, THE SANTALS HAVE DEVELOPED THEIR OWN WORLDVIEW, A SYSTEM FITTED TO DEAL WITH THE STANDARD PROBLEMS OF LIFE AS WELL AS ITS MEANING. THEY MAY HAVE PERCEIVED THE ENIGMA AND THE BASIC DICHOTOMY OF HUMAN BEING EXISTENCE”LIFE AND DEATH, GOOD AND WICKED FROM THEIR VERY OWN PERSPECTIVE. PERTAINING TO THE SANTALS, LIFE, WELLNESS, WEALTH, PROSPERITY, HAPPINESS, TRIBE SOLIDARITY, SPIRITUAL BELIEF, MORES, ETC ., ARE “GOOD;

AND DEATH, HEALTH ISSUES, POVERTY, BAD LUCK, INJURY ETC . ARE “EVIL. THEIR FAITH BASED EXPERIENCES IS USUALLY MEDIATED THROUGH THEIR LIFESTYLE AND ARE EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF EMBLEMS, METAPHORS, MYTH, LEGENDS, FOLK TRADITIONS, SONGS, CULT, RITUALS AND SO FORTH. THE Santals consider A kur Jiu? (Life Giver) or Cando Baba (Sun Father) or perhaps Marang BURU (GREAT MOUNTAIN) AS THE ORIGIN OF ALL “GOOD; WHILE IT IS THE “EVIL EYE, THE “evil mouth and the b ric’ bonga? or perhaps malevolent state of mind who cause harms in human LIFE.

THEREFORE , WHILST ACKNOWLEDGING THE SUPREME GETTING, THEY ALSO PROPITIATE THE BONGA IN AN ATTEMPT TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS OF SUFFERING, SICKNESS, AND OTHER PROBLEMS. ALL THESE OFTEN LEAD THEM TO SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS AND GIVE RISE TO PROMINENCE WITH THE FEAR OF THE BONGA. PERTAINING TO THE SANTALS EVERY NEWBORN BABY CHILD COMING FROM THE INVISIBLE AND SHADOWY COMMUNITY NEEDS TO BE PURIFIED, IDENTIFIED AND INTRODUCED TO THE SANTAL CULTURE. MUCH OF THIS SORT OF REALITIES ARE EXPRESSED THROUGHOUT THE RITUAL EVENTS PERFORMED AFTER HAVING A CHILD Comes into the world.

The ritual of the janam ch usted r? (birth purification and name-giving ritual) is ONE EXAMPLE WHERE THESE ASPECTS WILL BE ENACTED THROUGH BATHING, WAXING THE HEAD FROM THE BABY, DIVINING OF ARWA RICE (UNBOILED RICE) CAUSE AND PLEASANT OF THE BABY BY THE COMMUNITY. THE FATALITY PURIFICATION CEREMONIES LIKE FUNERAL SERVICE RITES OF BHANDAN, OR PERHAPS MORA KARAM (AFTER-DEATH CELEBRATION) PROVIDE FURTHER DETAILS OF THE SANTAL-BELIEF SYSTEM THAT THE DEAD PERSON EXTENDS BACK TO THE SAME SPIRIT-WORLD OF LIFE VIA WHERE HE/.

SHE EXPERIENCED COME AS A BABY AND REMAINS TO BE DEFILED AND DEFILING, FOR WHICH REASON NOT MERELY THE FAMILY THAT NEEDS PURIFICATION, BUT THE VERY RETURN FROM THE DECEASED PERSON TO THEIR ORIGINAL STATE OR SHADOWY-WORLD IS ALREADY DEFILING BECAUSE IT IS A TRIBELESS-STATE, RUINED AND GUILTY STATE ALSO BECAUSE IT HAS BEEN CREATED FOR THE PUNISHMENT OF THE SINS OF AVARICE AND SATISFACTION. HENCE, THE DECEASED PERSON NEEDS TO BE CUT BACK 5 |P a g e.

Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh SPIRITUALLY TO HIS/HER OWN FAMILY AND IS SET UP AS AN INVISIBLE MEMBER WHILE HAPRAM (ANCESTOR). THE DEPARTED, ALTHOUGH HIDDEN, REMAIN AN EVERLASTING MEMBER OF THE FAMILY AND THEY ARE REMEMBERED AND REVERED DURING ALMOST ALL THEIR FAMILY OCCASIONS. THE SANTALS BELIEVE THAT “WHEN [A] PERSON BECOMES PERFECTLY FREE FROM EVERY GREED AND PRIDE THIS STATE WILL BE REMOVED WHICH WILL BE THE NEW CREATION, WHICH IN CHRISTIANITY MAY BE COMPARED WITH YOUR SALVATION.

FOR THE SANTALS, THERE IS NO OBVIOUS DISTINCTION BETWEEN SACRED PLUS THE PROFANE, SPIRITUAL AND NON-RELIGIOUS, SPIRITUAL PLUS THE MATERIAL PARTS OF LIFE. PETS AND THE MATERIAL WORLD ARE AT THE REMOVAL OF HUMAN BEINGS FOR THEIR SELF-PRESERVATION AND WELLBEING. MOREOVER, SANTAL-LIFE IS TIGHTLY RELATED TO NATURE AND TO THE COMPLETE OF CREATION. LAND AND FOREST STAY UNITED WITH SANTAL-IDENTITY AND ARE ALSO VERY MUCH MIRRORED IN THEIR LIVES, LOVE, POEMS, SONGS, DANCE AND MUSIC. THE SANTALS, FOR EXAMPLE , TALK ABOUT TO THE “SUPREME BEING AS CANDO HUMOR (SUN FATHER) AND THE SUPERSTARS TOO WILL VARY NAMES.

ACCORDING TO ARCHER, “ALTHOUGH AREAS, HOUSES, MEN AND WOMEN SEEM TO MAKE UP A SANTAL VILLAGE, SANTALS REGARD THESE PEOPLE AS AT MOST A PORTION OF THEIR TOTAL WORLD.  6 | P a g elizabeth Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh some. THE SANTALS IN THEIR SOCIO-CULTURAL REALITIES 4. 1 THE SANTAL-VILLAGE: THE SANTAL VILLAGE IS A ROUTINE OF SANTAL LIVING IN FACT IT IS THE MOST TRADITIONAL AND HISTORICAL INSTITUTION, WHICH IN TURN CRYSTALLIZES THE FULL SYSTEM OF SOCIABLE, POLITICAL, AND RITUAL STRUCTURES. IT COMES INTO EXISTENCE THROUGHOUT THE SPECIAL DISPENSATION OF THE BONGA AND IS SANCTIFIED BY THEIR BLESSINGS.

THE PRESENCE OF SEVERAL CLANS WITHIN A VILLAGE ILLUSTRATES THE BEAUTY OF A RESIDENTIAL AREA LIVING AND OBVIOUSLY THE DEMOCRATIC CHARACTER IN THE VILLAGE OPERATIONS ITSELF CAN BE DESCRIBED AS SIGN OF INCREDIBLE RICHNESS OF THE SANTAL SOCIETAL DEALING AND LIVING. A SANTAL VILLAGE IS USUALLY DEMARCATED WITH AN IMPLICIT BOUNDARY SO THAT IT MAY CONTINUE TO BE FREE FROM OUTDOORS INTERFERENCE OF EVIL SPIRITS. THE SANTALS BELIEVE THAT QUARRELS AMONG HOUSEHOLDS AND ORGANIZATIONS IN THE VILLAGE, NATURAL DISASTERS, SICKNESS, EPIDEMICS, ETC ., ARE CAUSED BY LACK OF BALANCE BETWEEN THE FORCES OF GOOD AND EVIL.

5. 2 SOCIABLE STRUCTURE OF SANTAL COMMUNITY: THE PRIMARY CHARACTERISTIC OF EVERY SANTAL VILLAGE IS A “MANJHI COUNCIL OR THE COMMUNITY COUNCIL HEADED BY A MANJHI (HEADMAN). THE VILLAGE COUNCIL IS THE AGENT BODY FROM THE COMMUNITY COMPRISING SEVEN REPRESENTATIVES, NAMELY: MANJHI, PARANIK (A DEPUTY HEADMAN), JOG MANJHI (AN OVERSEER OF THE COMMUNITY ON MORAL ISSUES), JOG PARANIK (ASSISTANT TO JOG MANJHI), GODET’ (A MESSENGER), NAEKE (A village priest), and his assistant is Kud m Naeke?. These OFFICIALS IN FACT WILL BE THE SERVANTS, NOT REALLY THE MASTERS OF THE community and their part is simply functional.

The M njhi? remains while the overall HEAD OF THE TOWN COUNCIL AND PRESIDES WITHIN THE VILLAGE MEETING BUT WITH THE ACCEPTED BASIC PRINCIPLE THAT NO PERSON OVERRULES A SINGLE ELSE. THE FUNCTIONS FROM THE COUNCIL ON THE OTHER HAND, ARE CATEGORICALLY DIVIDED AMONG THE MEMBERS TO PREVENT ANY OVERLAPPING. THE COUNCIL MEMBERS EXECUTE THEIR FEATURES IN ACCORDANCE WITH ALL THEIR TRIBAL CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS.

THE DESIGN OF THE TOWN GOVERNANCE WITH THE SANTALS IS USUALLY DEMOCRATIC IN CHARACTER SIMILAR TO OTHER DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTION. IN PRESENT PERIOD, WITH THE INTRO OF THE GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED UNION PARISAD (LOCAL MANAGEMENT COUNCIL) THE SOCIAL POWER OVER THE TRADITIONAL meters njhi? authorities of the Santals is mostly eroded.

7 | P a g e Ethnic Band of Bangladesh PURSUING THE PATRIARCHAL PATTERN, THE MANJHI (LEADER) IN THE VILLAGE TO GET THE SANTALS, IS ALWAYS A MALE. THE TITLE OF THE MANJHI IS GENERALLY GENETIC AND IT IS GIVEN TO PATRILINEALLY. NOW-A-DAYS, THE MALE USERS OF THE COMMUNITY MAY CHOOSE OR EVEN CHOOSE THEIR OWN HEADMAN UPON PREVALENT CONSENSUS. THE DEFINITION OF OF WORKPLACE IS EVERLASTING BUT CAN BE ALTERED BY GENERAL AGREEMENT ACCORDING TO THE WANT. ALTHOUGH THE BUSINESS OFFICE OF THE HEADMAN IS NON-REFLEX AND HONORARY IN CHARACTERISTICS, THE PEOPLE OF THE MANJHI COUNCIL ARE RESPONSIBLE TO THE COMMUNITY FOR THE SMOOTH RUNNING OF THE VILLAGE ESPECIALLY FOR SOCIAL THINGS.

4. a few THE RACE: SANTALS HAPPEN TO BE ENDOGAMIC LIKE A PEOPLE MAINLY BECAUSE THEY CANNOT GET MARRIED OUTSIDE THEIR TRIBE, BUT THEY ARE EXOGAMIC SINCE CLAN MAINLY BECAUSE THEY CANNOT ALWAYS BE married between the same family (p ris? ). Traditionally the Santals used to have FOSTERED A TOTAL OF TWELVE TEAMS BUT HOWEVER IN THE COURSE OF RECORD ONE HAS WANTED. THE TEAMS ARE: 1) BASKEY, 2) BESRA, 3) CORE, 4) HASDAK’, 5) Hembrom, 6) Kisku, 7) Marandi, 8) Murmu, 9) P uria, 10) Soren, 11) Tudu, and?

12) BEDEA (THE LOST ONE). MAJOR CAPABILITIES OF THE CLANS ARE TO CONTROL MARRIAGE, INHERITANCE, SUCCESSION AND AFFILIATION (ALI 1988; LIKEWISE HOSSAIN 2000). ONE BECOMES A CLAN AFFILIATE BY LABOR AND BIRTH. IT IS SAID THAT THESE CLANS ARE HIERARCHICALLY BOUGHT ON THE BASIS OF OCCUPATION, LIKE: Kisku raja (king), Marandi Kipis r? (wealthy or richer), Murmu A kur? (priest), Soren Drink hi? (warrior), Tudu Meters nd ri?? (musician), etc and so forth. NEVERTHELESS , ACCORDING TO THE SPECIALIST, THESE OCCUPATIONAL HIERARCHIES OF STATUS YOU DON’T HAVE ANY IMPACT ON THE SANTALS IN DAILY LIVES. some. 4.

ALONG WITH MARRIAGE: IS THE PRIMARY UNIT OF INDIVIDUAL SOCIETY. THE FAMILY AMONG THE SANTALS CAN BE TERMED AS OF BIOLOGICAL, JOINT, AND EXTENDED. A.

SPOUSE, HIS BETTER HALF AND THEIR SINGLE CHILDREN FORM PART OF THE BIOLOGICAL OR ELEMENTAL FAMILY. A HUSBAND, HIS WIFE FANTASTIC MARRIED AND UNMARRIED DAUGHTERS AND CHILDREN AND SOMETIMES HIS OLD PARENTS, BROTHER FANTASTIC FAMILY CONTACT FORM PART OF THE JOINT FAMILY OR PERHAPS EXTENDED FAMILY TYPE. ACCORDING TO THE SANTALS, MATRIMONY IS AN UNION BETWEEN A MAN AND A WOMAN, WHICH IS SOCIALLY ACKNOWLEDGED; CULTURALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY IT ALLOWS THE COUPLE TO RESIDE A FAMILY. A SANTAL RELATIONSHIP CAN BE DEFINED ALSO AS A LEGAL COPY OF HABBIT OF THE eight | L a g e Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh BRIDE, VIA HER FATHER’S FAMILY FOR THE GROOM’S FRIENDS AND FAMILY.

BY THIS COPY, THE GROOM’S FAMILY WILL NOT ONLY SUPPOSE GUARDIANSHIP BUT ALSO PRESUMES CONTROL OVER EVERY HER AFFAIRS. THROUGH MARITAL LIFE THE BRIDE LOOSES HER PATERNAL LEGAL IDENTITY AND ACQUIRES THE IDENTITY OF THE GROOM’S FAMILY MEMBERS. IN THE INSTITUTIONAL SENSE, MATRIMONY IS THE COLLABORATION BETWEEN A MALE AND WOMEN REGULATED BY CUSTOMARY LAWS THAT ENHANCE LEGAL UNION BETWEEN THE GENDERS AND ESTABLISH THE TECHNIQUES FOR CREATING THE HUSBAND-WIFE RELATION, THE RECIPROCAL COMMITMENTS AND THE APPROVED RESTRICTIONS UPON ITS PERSONNEL. AS TO THE SOURCE AND ESTABLISHMENT OF MATRIMONY, THE SANTALS BELIEVE THAT THE CREATOR.

HIMSELF HAS ESTABLISHED RELATIONSHIP. THAT IS, THE THAKUR JIU WHO CAME UP WITH THE FIRST INDIVIDUAL PAIR (PILCU HARAM AND PILCU BUDHI) HAS ALSO IMPLEMENTED MARRIAGE. ALTHOUGH THERE ARE SOME CASES OF POLYGAMY, MONOGAMY IS THE NATURE OF MOST SANTAL MARRIAGES. BESIDES SERVING SEXUAL NEEDS AND PROCREATION OF HEIRS, A SANTAL RELATIONSHIP HAS ALSO OTHER PURPOSES, INCLUDING COMPANIONSHIP, CREATION OF RELATIVES, ECONOMIC SECURENESS, COOPERATION INSIDE THE FAMILY VENTURE, SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SECURENESS, ETC . THEREFORE, SANTAL MATRIMONY IS NOT ONLY BETWEEN TWO PERSONS OF REVERSE SEX IT BECOMES A BOND OF UNION BETWEEN TWO FAMILIES, TWO VILLAGES, AND.

ALSO IMPACTS THE GROUP OF FRIENDS OF MARRIAGE AMONG THE RELATIVES. M. A. JALIL BRINGS UP FOUR TYPES OF MARITAL LIFE AMONG THE SANTALS IN BANGLADESH. THESE ARE: 1) DANGWA BAPLA (CONTACT MARRIAGE), 2) ANGIR BAPLA (LOVE MARRIAGE), 3) OR BAPLA (FORCE MARRIAGE), AND 4) ITUT’ BAPLA (TACTICAL MARRIAGE). MOREOVER, SANTALS DO INCLUDE EXCEPTIONS PARTICULARLY IN THE CASE OF MARRIAGE AMONG CANDIDATES OF THE IDENTICAL CLAN. FOR INSTANCE , WHEN THE RELATIONSHIP OF A FRESH COUPLE OF A SIMILAR CLAN FOR A VALID REASON IS NEEDED, AND CONSANGUINITY OR AFFINITY DOES NOT PREVENT IT, THEY APPLY A JURIDICAL PRETENSE.

IN SUCH CASE, AN ELDERLY FEW A DIFFERENT TRIBE, ADOPTS THE BRIDE BECAUSE THEIR DAUGHTER THROUGH A SIMPLE HABIT CEREMONY AND GIVES THE PROPER NAME TO HER. four. 5 ANNUAL FESTIVALS AND CEREMONIES: THE SANTAL CULTURE IS NOTICEABLE WITH FEASTS, FESTIVALS AND RITUAL GET-TOGETHERS. ONE OF THE CONDITIONS OFTEN used by Santals is definitely r sk? meaning pleasure, or joy, WHICH IS NOT SIMPLY DEAR WITH THEIR HEARTS NEVERTHELESS IS PART AND PARCEL OF THEIR YOUR LIFE. THUS, WE DISCOVER DANCING AND SINGING POSSESS A IMPORTANT ROLE EACH AND EVERY FESTIVAL CELEBRATION. IT PROVIDES A SANTAL TO FORGET WORRIES AND STRESSES OF HIS OR HER 9 | P a g e.

Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh DAY-TO-DAY EXISTENCE. IN THE SOCIABLE LIFE WITH THE SANTALS, FEASTS AND FESTIVALS HAVE WONDERFUL SIGNIFICANCE FOR THESE ARE THE LIVING EXPRESSION OF THE DEEP HOPE OF HAPPINESS AND DELIGHT, AND ALSO ILLUSTRATE THE FEELING OF COMMUNITY AND SOLIDARITY BUILT-IN AS PART OF THE CHARACTER OF THE SANTALS. MANY OF THIS KIND OF CHARACTERISTICS ARE EXPRESSED IN SONGS, MUSIC AND IN MOVE. IN FACT , THE SANTALS AVOID GIVE ANY KIND OF SPACE TO INDIVIDUALISM AND IT IS REALLY THROUGH THE FEASTS AND FESTIVALS THAT AN INDIVIDUAL UNDERSTANDS HIMSELF OR PERHAPS HERSELF IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD AND HIS OR HER FORESEEABLE FUTURE ROLE IN THE LIFE OF.

THE COMMUNITY. THOUGH, MOST OF THESE FESTS SEEMINGLY SEEM AS SIMPLY GATHERING OF CLOSE FRIENDS AND RELATIVES, PERSONS OF THE SAME SUB-CLAN OR THAT CONCERN THE PARTICULAR INHABITANTS OF ANY VILLAGE; BUT, THERE ARE ALSO EVENTS THAT ENTAIL MORE NEIGHBORHOODS, AS IT GENERALLY HAPPENS AROUND THE OCCASION OF MARRIAGE ONCE PARTICIPATION IS MOSTLY UNANIMOUS. IN DIFFERENT OF THESE FEASTS AND FESTS, THERE ARE CERTAIN RITES AND RITUALS BEING USED OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY SIMPLE SUPPLYING AT THE CENTER. LAVURE AND UNCTION OF PETROL, THE USE OF VERMILION TO DRAW THE SACRIFICIAL VICTIM AND BEING USED BY.

PARTICIPANTS, BEARS A GREATER RELEVANCE. IN FACT , A FEW OF THESE FESTIVAL PERFORMANCES CONSIST OF SOME TYPE OF PRAISE OR PEOPLE CULTS. IN THE RITES AND FESTIVALS IN THE SANTALS, IT IS VERY CLEAR THAT THEIR ECONOMIC LIFE, CULTURAL ORGANIZATION AND RITUAL ACTIVITIES ARE INTERWOVEN MAINLY ABOUT AGRICULTURE. THE SANTALS BELIEVE THAT THE FACETS OF MATERIAL YOUR LIFE MUST BE SAFEGUARDED AND SAFEGUARDED BY APPROPRIATE RITES AND FESTIVALS; AND BONGA (SPIRITS) MUST BE PLEASED BY GIVING THEIR DUE STOCKS. MANY OF THE SOCIO-CULTURAL FESTIVALS AND RITUALISTIC GET-TOGETHERS INDICATE THAT SANTALS.

INCLUDE DEEPER IDEAS THAT GO ABOVE MERE EXTERNAL CELEBRATIONS. HOWEVER , DUE TO THE RANGE AND LIMITATION OF THIS EXAMINE, WE JUST MENTION A LOT OF MAIN ANNUAL FESTIVALS AND CEREMONIES TYPICALLY OBSERVED JUST LIKE: SOHORAE (HARVEST FESTIVAL), BAHA (FLOWER festival), Erok’ (sowing of grain seeds in the field), Iri-Gundli N wai? (offering in the FIRST FRUITS OF THE MILLET IRI), JANTHAR (OFFERING WITH THE FIRST FRUITS OF THE WINTERTIME RICE CROP). SANTALS LIKEWISE HAVE OCCASIONAL RITES AND FESTIVALS, WHICH ARE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH FARMING OPERATIONS NOR PERFORMED YEARLY. SOME OF THESE WILL BE: JOM SIM, MAK’ MORE AND KARAM.

12 | P a g e Cultural Group Of Bangladesh 5. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICS REALITIES your five. 1 CAREERS AND LIVING: TRADITIONALLY SANTALS ARE MAINLY AGRICULTURISTS. THEY CLING TO THEIR PROPERTY AS THEIR MAIN OCCUPATION AND MEANS OF SUBSISTENCE. ABOUT 95% OF THE SANTALS ARE INVOLVED IN FARMING OPERATIONS. DILIGENT AND HARDWORKING AS THEY ARE, REGRETTABLY THE CLINICAL SIDE OF THEIR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT CULTIVATION AND TAKING CARE OF THEIR AREA HAS NOT BEEN DEVELOPED. IN THE PAST THE VAST MAJORITY OF SANTALS HAD BEEN LANDOWNERS, NEVERTHELESS DUE TO THE EMBRACE POPULATION, FERMAGE BY MONEYLENDERS AND LANDLORDS, ILLEGAL.

JOB OF THEIR AREA, POVERTY AND ILLITERACY, ORGANIC CALAMITIES ETC . THE VAST MAJORITY OF THE SANTALS IN BANGLADESH TAKING THEIR PROPERTY PROPERTIES. CURRENTLY, NEARLY 80 percent OF THE SANTALS ARE LAND-LESS, FORCING THESE TO EARN THEIR LIVELIHOOD DEPENDING ON THE MERCY AND AVAILABILITY OF OPERATE THE FIELDS OF THEIR MUSLIM OR INDIO NEIGHBORS FOR THEIR MERE SUBSISTENCE. YET, IT IS SIGNIFICANT TO NOTE THAT TRADITIONALLY YOU WILL FIND NO BEGGARS AMONG THE SANTALS. RATHER, THE SANTALS IN THE TIME OF SERIOUS POVERTY GO TO THE JUNGLE TO GATHER WILD PLANT LIFE, FRUITS, OUTRAGEOUS POTATOES AND ROOTS OF YOUNG SHOOTS, FLOWERS, MUSHROOMS, ETC .

HUNTING AND FISHING THAT ACCUSTOMED TO BE PART OF SANTAL-LIVING, HAVE NOW TURN INTO SECONDARY IMPORTANCE DUE TO THE TRANSFORM OF CONDITION. LACK OF JOB OPPORTUNITIES IN THE COMMUNITY AREAS, LIKEWISE FORCED MANY SANTALS TO FLOCK TO THE NEARBY VILLAGES AND TOWNS IN SEARCH OF DAILY WAGES AND JOBS. THE LADIES IN SANTAL SOCIETY PLAY AN IMPORTANT FUNCTION IN MAINTAINING THEIR LOVED ONES BUT IN ACTUALITY THEY REMAIN DEPRIVED OF THEIR EQUAL RIGHT, WHICH IS SHOWN BY THE FACT THAT WOMEN ARE CERTAINLY NOT ELIGIBLE FOR THE INHERITANCE OF PROPERTIES. SANTALS HAVE NEVER BEEN FOUND TO BECOME INTERESTED IN TRADE OR ANY THESE KINDS OF PROFESSION.

TO AVAIL OF MONETARY SELF-RELIANCE. THIS IS CERTAINLY ONE OF THE REASONS FOR WHAT REASON THEY REMAIN RATHER MARGINALIZED INVITING POVERTY IN THEIR LIVES. MOREOVER, THE MAJORITY OF SANTALS USUALLY DO NOT THINK ABOUT FUTURE, RATHER THEY CAN BE MORE CONCERNED FOR THE DAY; IT’S A DAILY LIVING AND THEY REMAIN PLEASED AND HAPPY WITH THE LITTLE THEY WILL HAVE PERTAINING TO MAINTAINING THEIR PARTICULAR FAMILY. YET , DUE TO A LOT OF PROGRESS IN EDUCATION, HARDLY ANY SANTALS HAD BEEN ABLE TO GENERATE LITTLE CHANGES IN THEIR WAY OF LIVING. 11 | P a g e Ethnic Number of Bangladesh A LOT OF HAVE TAKEN UP MODERN VOCATIONS LIKE TEACHINGS, TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE, JUDICIAL CARE, NURSING AND SO FORTH

5. a couple of POLITICAL FACT: SANTALS, A PEACE LOVING INDIVIDUALS HAVE NEVER RECENTLY BEEN FOUND INTERESTED IN POLITICS. BUT, THEY HAVE OFTEN REACTED THE MOMENT THINGS TRAVELLED SEVERELY PAINFUL AND THEY HAD BEEN PUSHED RESISTANT TO THE WALL WHENEVER THEY COULD NOT BEAR ANYMORE. THE HISTORIC SANTAL REVOLUTION IN 1855-56, THE TEBHAGA ANDOLON (SHARE CROPPERS’ MOVEMENT) 66 YEARS AGO, AND THE NACHOL BIDROHO (FARMERS’ REVOLUTION) IN THE YEAR 1950, WILL BE THE CONCRETE INSTANCES OF THE PAST. IN FACT , SANTALS WILL ALWAYS BE USED BY OTHERS IN THE FRONT BATTLE. ILLITERACY, ABSENCE OF COMPANY SET UP AND LACK OF LEGITIMATE.

LEADERSHIP POSSESS KEPT THE SANTALS NOT EVEN CLOSE TO ACHIEVING VIRTUALLY ANY END RESULT. LATELY, SOME OF THE SANTALS HAVE BEEN FOUND TO TAKE ENERGETIC ROLE IN THE LOCAL POLITICS BY WAY OF A PARTICIPATION FROM YOUR ELECTION. doze | P a g e Cultural Group Of Bangladesh 6. VALUES AND PRACTICE PRACTICES six. 1 THE IDEA IN ONE SUPREME BEING: AS IT HAS ALREADY BEEN POINTED OUT EARLIER, SANTALS DO TRUST IN ONE “SUPREME BEING TO WHOM THEY CALL UP THAKUR JIU (LIFE GIVER) OR MARANG BURU (GREAT MOUNTAIN) WHO WILL BE CONSIDERED TO BE THE “SUPREME OF MOST THE “RELIGIOUS BEINGS. THE MOST FREQUENT SANTAL-TERM INTENDED FOR THE SUPREME BEING.

TODAY IS CANDO BABA (SUN FATHER). BASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF THE RESEARCHER THE SANTALS HERE DO NOT REFER LITERALLY FOR THE SUN BY ITSELF RATHER, COSTLY EXPRESSION OF A DIVINE ACTIVITY: EXPRESSION OF DIVINE LOVE IN RELATION TO HUMAN BEINGS. FOR THE SANTALS, CANDO BABA CAN BE DESCRIBED AS BENEVOLENT DEITY WHO ORGANIZES THE DAYS AND NIGHTS AND IT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR HEAT AND COLD, RAIN AND SUNSHINE; AND FROM A DWELLING ‘SOMEWHERE IN THE SKY’, ALLOTS EACH SANTAL A TERM OF LIFE HERE ON EARTH. HOWEVER HE REMAINS FAR AWAY, FAR ABOVE THE SKY AND CANNOT BE REACHED. IT REALLY IS UNDERNEATH.

DIRECT SUNLIGHT, BENEATH THE ATMOSPHERE, THAT SANTAL LIFE IS CHALLENGED. HERE THE BONGA ROAM AROUND AND ONLY BY ARRIVING AT TERMS WITH THEM CAN SANTALS BE HAPPY. six. 2 THE IDEA IN BONGA (SPIRITS): THE SANTALS TRUST IN THE EXISTENCE OF THE SPIRITS WHO ALSO ARE CALLED BONGA. THE BONGA HAVE VERY MUCH REPERCUSSION ON DAILY LIVING IN THE SANTALS. TO ENSURE THEIR CONTINUOUS CARE, BESIDE ANNUAL SACRIFICES, THE BONGA ARE REMEMBERED IN A DAILY BASIS. WHENEVER A MEAL IS USUALLY TAKEN, A SMALL PORTION OF THE FOODSTUFF IS DECREASED ON THE FLOOR INTENDED FOR THE BONGA, OR AT THE MOMENT WHENEVER RICE-BEER IS INEBRIATED, A LITTLE IS USUALLY SPILT ON THE GROUND FOR MARANG BURU.

AS A RESULT, THE SANTALS LIVE NOT ONLY IN THEIR TRIBAL SOCIETY BUT ALSO IN A GREATER SOCIETY CONSISTING OF SUPERNATURAL BEINGS AS WELL. IN PRACTICE, THE SANTALS OFTEN USE THE TERM BONGA THAT MEANS “TO INCORPORATE SOMEONE IN TO THE SOCIETY GETTING INTO CERTAIN HABIT. THE EXPRESSION USED IN THIS SITUATIO IS: BONGA TALA KEDEAKO MEANING, THEY HAS BEEN ACCEPTED INTO SANTAL SOCIETY. BASED ON THE SANTAL FAITH BASED BELIEF YOU WILL FIND TWO TYPES OF BONGA”THE MALEVOLENT AND THE CHARITABLE ONES. THE BONGA-WORSHIP CAN BE PRIMARILY TO PLEASE AND INVOKE THE POWERS FROM THE BENEVOLENT BONGA AND TO AVERT THE SICK WILL WITH THE MALEVOLENT BONGA.

IN THE PRAISE OF BONGA WE CAN SEPARATE ANALYTICALLY TWO INTERRELATED ELEMENTS: 13 | P a g elizabeth Ethnic Number of Bangladesh A) THE OBJECTIVE PART OF THE RELIGIOUS RITES SHOULD BE TO HAVE AN CONNECTIONS WITH THE BENEVOLENT BONGA AND THEREBY HANDLING OR EVEN BEATING THE CAPABILITIES OF THE MALICIOUS BONGA; AND B) THE EXPRESSIVE ELEMENT OF THE WORSHIP IS MANIFESTED THROUGH VARIOUS SEASONAL AND RELIGIOUS RITUALS, FESTIVALS AND RITES CONNECTED WITH VARIOUS SOCIABLE RITUALS. SANTALS HAVE AN NATURAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THE BONGA AND CONSIDER THEMSELVES LIVING WITH ALL OF THEM.

THIS RELATIONSHIP IS MOSTLY OF DEPENDENCE, SUBMITTER, PROPITIATION AND REVERENTIAL FEAR. THE SANTALS DO SUPPLICATIONS; OFFER RICE-BEER; AND CREATURE SACRIFICES WITH THE INTENTION OF THE BONGA. IT IS WORTH MENTIONING THAT WE NOW HAVE INSTANCES AMONG THE LIST OF SANTALS IN THE RURAL NEIGHBORHOODS WHERE PERSONS EVEN WITH TIME OF SERIOUS SICKNESS WOULD NOT TRY TO FIND MEDICAL HELP INSTEAD LET IT STAY TO THE BONGA TO BE CURED. 6. a few BELIEF IN WITCHCRAFT: LINKED TO SANTAL BELIEF-SYSTEM, IS ALSO THE PRESENCE OF WITCHES. THE SANTALS THINK THAT THERE ARE CERTAIN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN, WHO OWN SPECIAL ELECTRICAL POWER AND TECHNIQUES TO HARM PERSONS, CATTLE, AND CROPS.

THESE KINDS OF SO-CALLED NURSES ARE INVOLVED IN CARRYING OUT HARMFUL PURSUITS LIKE GIVING POISONS, TAKING OUT MAN LIVERS, SENDING TROUBLESOME STATE OF MIND TO SPECIFIC FAMILIES AND CHANGING THEMSELVES INTO DARK-COLORED CATS. AS A RESULT OF SUCH OPINION IN WITCHCRAFT PRACTICES, THE SANTALS QUICKLY SUSPECT THE OTHER PERSON, AND ARE TYPICALLY LED TO BATTLE. IT IS PRESUMED THAT IT IS IMPORTANT TO HAVE THIS SORT OF A IDEA ESPECIALLY IN THE PAGAN WORLD. YET , THERE IS ALSO A COUNTER-BELIEF AMONG THE SANTALS THAT THERE ARE SPECIFIC PEOPLE OJHA-JANGURU (SPECIALISTS), PRIMARILY MEN, WHOM POSSESS SPECIAL POWER AND TECHNIQUES FOR FINDING WITCHES AND NULLIFYING ALL THEIR SPELLS.

HENCE, WHENEVER SANTALS GET INTO TROUBLE, THEY LOOK FOR THE HELP OF THESE FOLKS WHO, MORE OFTEN EXPLOIT THE SOCIETY. TALKING ABOUT THE SICKNESS AND OTHER CHALLENGES, THE SANTALS BELIEVE THAT THEY MAY BE CAUSED BY THE EVIL MOOD WHEN THEY TURN INTO DISSATISFIED WHILE USING SACRIFICES IN THE PEOPLE OR WHEN THEY THINK THAT THEY ARE BEING MANIPULATED BY SIMPLY SOME EVIL-MINDED PEOPLE (WITCHES). THEREFORE , THE SANTALS MAKE AN EFFORT TO IDENTIFY THE AGENTS OF THE TROUBLE THROUGHOUT THE HELP OF OJHA”JANGURU AND TRY TO PACIFY EACH AGENT THROUGH VARIOUS SACRIFICES. 13 | S a g e.

Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh 6. four THE ANCESTORS: FROM THE RITES AND TRADITIONS AS PRACTICED BY THE SANTALS, IT IS QUITE EVIDENT THAT ANCESTOR-WORSHIP IS A COMMON CHARACTERISTIC AMONG THEM. THE DEAD FOREFATHERS ARE THE GENUINE BENEFACTORS IN THE FAMILIES OR GROUPS TO WHICH THEY BELONGED AND THAT THEY CAN BE APPROACHABLE BY WAY OF A LIVING KINSMEN. HENCE, BY ANY MEANS IMPORTANT EVENTS OF LABOR AND BIRTH, OF RELATIONSHIP OR OF DEATH THE DECEASED ANCESTORS ARE APPRECIATED AND OFFERED SACRIFICES. six. 5 THE JAHERTHAN OR PERHAPS THE SACRED GROVE IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF A SANTAL TOWN. IT IS A SACRED PLACE OF UNIQUE WORSHIP FOR THE SANTALS.

AFTER A TOWN HAS BEEN CREATE, A JAHERTHAN IS MOUNTED THROUGH HABIT CEREMONY IN THE OUTSKIRT OF THE VILLAGE. THE PRIMARY DEITY WITH THE JAHERTHAN, IS CALLED JAHER ERA (THE WOMAN OF THE GROVE). ACCORDING TO THE SANTALS, SHE EXISTS THERE BESIDES OTHER IMPORTANT DEITIES SUCH AS THE MOREKO-TURUIKO (LITERALLY MEANS FIVE-SIX). THE JAHER ERA PRESIDES OVER THE ALMOST HOLY GROVE, IS INCLINED OVER ADDITIONAL BONGA IN THE JAHERTHAN AND APPEARS AFTER THE INTERESTS OF THE VILLAGERS ESPECIALLY FOR THEIR PHYSICAL NEEDS. THE MOOD OF THE JAHERTHAN ARE WORSHIPPED DURING THE PRIMARY FESTIVALS, JUST LIKE SOHORAE (HARVEST FESTIVAL), BAHA.

(FLOWER FESTIVAL), EROK’ (SOWING FESTIVAL), AND SO ON FOR THE OVERALL WELFARE IN THE VILLAGE PARTICULARLY FOR OBTAINING VERY GOOD CROPS AS WELL AS FOR THE HEALTH OF THE VILLAGERS AND THE LIVESTOCK. 6th. 6 The M njhithan? or the ceremony of the headman is placed along side the kulhi (VILLAGE ROAD) OR TYPICALLY AT THE CENTRAL PLACE OF THE VILLAGE OR IN FRONT THE PROPERTY OF THE Meters njhi? (the headman). It really is believed that the Manjhi bonga (spirit of the headman) RESIDES IN THIS ALTAR AND WILL ACT AS THE RELIGIOUS ADVISER OF THE HEADMAN. IN THIS ARTICLE THE Meters njhi? gives sacrifice intended for the benefit of him self, his along with for the whole.

VILLAGE. 6. several THE “HOUSE-ALTAR: IN THE INSIDE OF A SANTAL HOUSE, THERE REMAINS THE bhit l,? a tiny area, which is the darkest space of the house. It is the abode IN THE ORAK BONGA (HOUSE SPIRITS) OR CALLED ABGE BONGA”THE BONGA IN THE SUB-CLAN. THE HEAD OF THE FAMILY DOES THE WORSHIP. IN ANY EVENT OF THE FAMILY AND SOCIAL FESTIVALS, FOOD PROVIDING IS MADE ON THIS ALTAR. THE NAMES OF THE ORAK BONGA ARE CERTAINLY NOT REVEALED TO OUTSIDERS AND EVEN TO THE FEMALE MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE SOMEWHAT, HANDED DOWN FROM FATHER TO SON. GENERALLY THE ELDEST SON OBTAINS THE BE DERIVED FROM HIS FATHER. 15 | P a g elizabeth.

Ethnic Selection of Bangladesh The bhit l? is also utilized as a key place to germinate and to retail outlet h ndi? (rice beer), WHICH IS NOT JUST USED BECAUSE NORMAL BEVERAGE BUT ITS USE IS SIGNIFICANT AND EXTENDED TO SOCIO-CULTURAL RITUALISTIC CELEBRATIONS, AND IN MANY CASES THAT TO BE OFFERED TO SATISFY THE BONGA. six. 8 THE “AFTER-LIFE MAY BE THE CONTINUATION OF LIFE THAT IS LIVED IN THIS WORLD. THE SANTALS BELIEVE THAT THE SPIRIT FROM THE DECEASED VISITS A SHADOWY WORLD WHERE PERSON REQUIRES THE ELEMENTS OF THIS UNIVERSE. THIS IS VERY WELL EXPRESSED WITH THE RITUAL TECHNIQUES DONE DURING THE TIME OF BURIAL AND THROUGH THE BHANDAN, THE LAST SERVICE DONE IN HONOR OF THE DECEASED.

IN THE PAST, IT ABSOLUTELY WAS PERFORMED RIGHT AFTER ALL THE REQUIREMENTS HAD BEEN HAPPY FOR THE DECEASED PERSON, BUT IN PRESENT DAYS SUCH CEREMONY, IN A RICH FRIENDS AND FAMILY, IS DONE WITHIN TWO OR THREE WEEKS FROM THE LOSS OF LIFE AND IN A BAD FAMILY, IT CAN BE ONE YEAR OR TWO. FOR THE SANTALS, THE MORE NUMEROUS WOULD BE THE ANIMAL-VICTIMS COME IN HONOR OF THE DEAD THROUGHOUT THE BHANDAN, THE GREATER WOULD BE THE ANIMALS THAT THE ANCESTRAL WILL HAVE INSIDE THE OTHER UNIVERSE. MOST ANIMAL-VICTIMS ARE CONTRIBUTED BY THE FAMILY MEMBERS AND PROBABLY NONE OF THEM ARE TO BE SPARED PERTAINING TO FUTURE EMPLOY BY THE FRIENDS AND FAMILY CONCERNED.

CUSTOMARILY EVERY SANTAL, MALE AND FEMININE, IS SUPPOSED TO ENDURE UNDELETABLE SCARS on the body. To get the male, is it doesn’t sik? that needs to be at least three scarring REPRESENTING JION (LIFE), MORON (DEATH), AND JION (LIFE). THE SANTAL WOMEN USUALLY DO NOT practice sik?, but to escape to be devoured by the worms in the life-after, they have THEIR PARTICULAR CHEST INKED, WHICH IS CALLED BY THE SANTALS KHODA. FR. PUSSETTO, WITH HIS GREAT EXPERIENCE WITH THE SANTALS SPOKEN: I HAVE NOT ONLY SEEN SANTAL WOMEN TATTOOED ON THE CHEST BUT ALSO ON THE BACKSIDE, ON THE FACE, FOR THE ARMS AND ON THE LEGS;

THE TATTOO WERE ENOUGH COMPLICATED, BUT PURELY ORNAMENTAL¦THE TATTOO IS GOING TO SERVE TO THE LADIES TO BE RECOGNIZED FROM THE INDIVIDUAL HUSBANDS IN THE OTHER LIFE.

IN THE PRESENT MOMENTS THE YOUNGER GENERATION IN THE SANTALS IN BANGLADESH WOULD NOT practice sik? or khoda or rather these have become voluntary. However , every single SANTAL CHILD BEARS NEEDLE-EYE WHOLES IN HIS/HER TWO EARS TO USE ORNAMENTS AFTER THEY GROW UP AND ESPECIALLY AT THE TIME OF HIS/HER MATRIMONY. 16 | P a g electronic Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh six. MORALITY IN SANTAL CONCEPTION FOR THE SANTALS, VALUES MEANS RIGHTFUL DOING AND LIVING; AND REMAINING THE CASE AND LOYAL.

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