The history of European theater begins with all the Greeks, in whose annual celebrations in honor of the god Dionysus included contests in tragic and comical plays. In accordance to custom, the first of these dramatic forms evolved from choral music concerning the death and revival of Dionysus. This happened about the middle of the 6th century BC, when Thespis of Icaria, in a drama of his own composition, impersonated a personality and involved the chorus in discussion, thereby getting both the first playwright plus the first actor. Thespis gained first reward in the initial tragedy competition held at Athens in 534 BC and is likewise credited with the introduction of masks, which were thereafter a standard feature of Greek and Roman movie theater. The tragic writers, Aeschylus and Sophocles later added a second and a third professional to disaster, and about quick the 5th century BC comedy was given written form by Epicharmus of Syracuse and was also confessed to the fests.
The ancient chorus was retained as an important part of Greek crisis and eventually consisted of a standard quantity of members: 12-15 in misfortune and twenty four in humor. In a épigramme play, a shorter burlesque that dramatists were expected to fill in along with their tragedies, the chorus comprised possibly 12 or 15 members. Men played out all of the functions, women are not allowed to conduct in the Greek theater.
Early Greek playwrights not only had written and frequently served in their takes on but also served since directors and choreographers, some may also include composed their particular music (Greek tragedy was intensely musical). Sophocles has been said to have recently been a field designer and Aeschylus to invent the tragic costume. Tragic actors wore a tight-sleeved, belted, patterned robe, a variety of cloaks over the robe, boot, which in later periods became exaggeratedly elevated by the addition of your wooden system to the singular, and the helmet-like mask with attached wig, in which the temple elevation was proportional for the social status of the figure represented.
The original Ancient greek theater for Athens was simply a huge circle referred to as orchestra (dancing place). Below the refrain and early on plays of Thespis and Aeschylus had been staged, when spectators sat on seating set in to the southern incline of the Acropolis. The only scenery consisted of some set items such as tombs and rocks, and it was not till about 460 BC which a stage building, originally of wood, was added behind the orchestra. The celebrities then made their entrances and leaves through this kind of structure, although the chorus ongoing to enter from your sides plus the acting was still being confined to the flat orchestra. A limited quantity of scenery, painted about panels placed on the level building, may have been used at this point, and several effects and machines were readily available. The playwright Euripides was fond of both these devices, and his contemporary Aristophanes ridiculed his use of these people in several of his comedies.
By the fourth century BC the playwright no longer managed all aspects of production. The Greek movie theater had become a specialist institution with specialists in charge of the various areas of theatrical skill. In the next two centuries, through the Hellenistic Era, the physical structure with the theater continued to develop, the most notable innovation being digging in a raised stage to the building, where the majority of the acting took place.