INTRODUCTION TO MUSA VARIETIES (BANANA /PLANTAIN)
Musa kinds is generally known as banana and plantain, and also the sweet or perhaps desert banana it is a popular known fruits in the world which has a sweet style and creamy flesh, Musa species is actually a green grow with regarding 12- twenty-five feet other than from the dwarf Cavendish which is 10 feet tall. Nspiración species will be grown in tropical areas where soils are always moist and wet. Musa types plant can be affected by wide range of factors including temperature, drought. Musa kinds plant get to its maturity stage for range of 10-15month to produce their particular fruit, and there trees is a monocotyledon with a heavy steam consisting a leaf sheaths and underground true originate that is able to develop sucker intended for the vegetative reproduction of the plant (Inibap 2000). That are severally used for food, and other times employed as fibers. Musa types can be grilled, fried or eaten raw. Musa types is very rich in the market for the extent that both the wealth and the average earning income people can pay for to buy this. Also it is very rich in nutritious and the even more they grow to their maturity stages the more the biochemical composition inside the fruits (Emagaet al., 2008). No section of the species fruits is a waste, a part of it can be used since medicine to market healings. Musa species is incredibly abundant in potassium and are approved to a individual that has potassium deficiency which in turn helps sufferer in electrolyte balance and normal flow of liquid in the body. It is advisable to take clown if not daily at least 3 times a week due to its phytochemical actions present in it which really helps to reduce human being stress, kidney malfunction, congestion, diarrhea and plenty of human disease. Banana provides carotenoids the industry good resource for the protection of chronic disease. Musa varieties waste which can be the peal is not advisable being dump anyway because of its impact on human, it is quite dangerous in the event that human ways on it that may slip a runner to land. But it is a benefit to animal because source of meals and it contain nutrient for the animal or animals which contain carbohydrate, polyphenol. It is also used industrially for the availability of bio-fuel, paper, organic and natural fertilizer or perhaps biotechnology related process (Morton, 1987).
Classification Based on Taxonomy
The genius of Musa comes from Arabic identity of the flower Mouz which has been used to Reverance a physician named Octavius Augustus who was the first Rome emperor. Plus the name clown was as well derived from the Arabians this means “finger” this is how the identity wa acknowledged by the community. Several people have been suggesting the collection of the species. chessman 1947 proposed the grouping in to four section base on morphological features which was later been cancelled because of callimusa ideals that proposed employing chromosome amount for the identification of the species. Afterwards a group of people add up on the admonitory of the varieties by the foreign network pertaining to banana and plantain back in 2006 to get the review of taxonomy and nombre status of the species (Wong, 2001, Ploetz et al. 2007).
Factors that Affect the Regarding Musa Kinds
Banana and plantain plants are prone to a wide range of factors which affect their progress. Some unwanted pests and diseases are highly extreme, very infectious and easily distributed. Once they strike the plant they are really practically challenging to eradicate (Robinson, 1996, Nelson et ‘s., 2006). These types of challenges may dramatically reduce the yield and still have a profound impact on meals availability and economical stability in many growing countries (Teycheney et al., 2007, Heslop Harrison and Schwarzacher, 2007).
These are generally living patient that affect the growth of plantain and clown if it’s recently been affected. This factors give rise to poor regarding the plant which could also leads to the fatality of the grow such factors are:
Clown and plantain have many and various pests. These kinds of parasites are occasionally sap feeding insects, basic knot nematodes and others. They have wide web host ranges and may even cause a significant damage to crops (Nelson ou al., 2006).
The main insect, pests affecting the banana and plantain production are the Clown aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa), Clown weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) Hawaii flower thrips (Thrips hawaiiensis), and sugarcane bud moth (Decadarchis flavistriata). Banana aphid has a significant pest position because it is a vector from the banana bunchy top disease (LassoudiÃ¨re, 2007).
The nematodes are other parasites of Musa plants. They are 3 major types of nematodes, the main knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp. ), Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis)
and Burrowing Nematode (Radopholus similis) which are economically important unwanted pests of Clown However , the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is the throughout the world nematode of banana (Nelson et ‘s., 2006). These types of Microscopic roundworms attack the fundamental systems with the plant and impair drinking water and nutrient uptake. In extreme contamination, root devices are so vulnerable that the banana plant are unable to support the heavily bunch. In the period of the high wind these types of infected vegetation are uprooted (LassoudiÃ¨re, 2007).
The Fungal diseases are the key diseases inside the banana and plantain farms. Panama disease or Fusarium wilt, due to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense has devastated the Banana development. It is generally regarded as one of the destructive plant diseases (Moore et al., 1995, Heslop Harrison and Schwarzacher, 2007). When Fusarium wilt is established in an region, it may not be controlled chemically by fungicides, soil fumigants or by cultural procedures. The only permanent option for continuing a Banana creation is a replacement of susceptible types with resilient varieties (Hwang and Ko, 2004). Dark sigatoka leaf spot or black tea leaf streak disease (BLSD) caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is another fungal disease that has become serious in recent times (LassoudiÃ¨re, 2007). Its illness commonly brings about 50% plant losses and its control requires environmentally unwanted and high-priced fungicides (Heslop Harrison and Schwarzacher, 2007). Anthracnose caused by Colletitricum musae, is postharvest disease of banana that causes intensive losses. This disease is characterized by submerged brown-black lesions which develop on the clown peel and these lesions lower the quality of the fruit (Alvindia et ‘s., 2000, Muirhead and Smith, 2000).
Most microbe diseases of banana and plantain seeds can be grouped into two categories, vascular infections brought on by Pseudomonas solanacearum and related organisms and diseases brought on by Erwinia kinds. Among these diseases they may be banana bacterial wilt, Blood vessels disease, Rhizome rot, Bugtok, Fingertip get rotten and Javanese vascular wilt (Jeger ainsi que al., 1995).
The Banana bacterial wilt disease (BBW) can be caused by Xanthomonas campestris photo voltaic.
Musacearum. All clown cultivars in affected areas are susceptible to BBW plus the disease is rapidly spread (Heslop Harrison and Schwarzacher, 2007).
It has been found that the BBW is a very dangerous disease with an occurrence of 75 80 % in many farms and the produce losses of 90 % have been reported on a few farms (Agrios, 2005).
These are nonliving things that affect the growth of plant and will also cause the damage of plant. This handle the environmental adjustments and the variability of the ground structure that happen to be (temperature, mild, wind, moisture, water supply) (Jeger ou al., 1995).
A result of Temperature:
It had been proved that temperature alterations have two main results on clown and plantain plants.
They have an effect on various physical processes inside the plant and will cause permanent damages of
Tissues and cells if the plants have undergone a good exposure to low or great heat
The Banana flower is very delicate to water deficiency and this is mirrored by lowered Greenness of foliage. If the deficiency becomes severe, all of the leaves fall prematurely as well as the pseudo-stem muscle collapses (Stover and Simmonds, 1987). Normal water deficit severely affects the plant growth and yield, as it deeply reduces the photosynthesis capacity of the
Banana plants (LassoudiÃ¨re, 2007).
Effect of Light:
The Photoperiod plus the quality of light influence the developmental operations of plants. The leaves use an absorbed light to correct carbon dioxide which in combination with water and mineral chemical from the dirt, plants form the dry issues that are partitioned amongst their various organs (Turner, 1995).
Effect of Wind:
The serious winds are common in the main banana growing areas of the world and it absolutely was estimated to become source of yield decrease in the banana development regions. The structure with the Banana herb with significant leaves, huge bunch of fruit and a shallow main system is Vulnerable to destruction simply by moderate and high winds. Wind is usually responsible for the Exchange of one’s, gases and water steam between the leaves in the cover and the Ambiance immediately over a crop. It has therefore , both mechanical and physiological effects on the plant life (Turner, 1995).
Medicinal Information of Musa Kinds
In the examine of Nspiración species, analysis look into the medicinal usage of plantain and clown as a supply of health treatment and reduction of body disorder. Plus they came up with many medicinal usage of plantain and banana. ( Kumar 2012). Which helps you to?
Reduced risk of high blood pressure
Clown is one of the best source of potassium which help the in the maintenance of normal stress and cardiovascular function. Several researches has become carried out, a medium size of banana consist of 350mg of potassium which help body control normal fluid and electrolyte in equilibrium the skin cells.
The analysis shows that organic compound in banana work as anti-hypertensive prescription drugs and that stress fell by simply 10% in people who ate two bananas daily to get a week ( Kumar 2012).
Reduce risk of cerebrovascular accident
The study of banana as a get rid of of stroke is still on study by man of science but it is definitely been noted that the the consumption of banana act as prevention for stroke because of the potassium level in banana which can be useful for the smooth blood circulation and helps inside the well function of the cardiovascular ( Kumar 2012).
Protection from Ulcers Heartburn Remedy
Study shows how clown helps to reduce the effects of the acidity in the abdomen which can be useful for the prevent heart burn and have antacid effect which in turn helps in preventing ulcer. The flavonoid in the banana, leucocyanidin, has been discovered to significantly help increase the thickness with the mucous membrane layer from the stomach.
Banana is made up of three (3) types of sugar and fiber which will helps in the minute gain of one’s which are the sucrose, fructose, sugar. and the by using a potassium which in turn helps the muscle to never cramping up. Study implies that just two banana help to provides strength for 85 minute work-out.