The analysis of christ and vampire images in

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Within the internet pages of Bram Stoker’s Dracula, the author explores concepts of love, darkness, and sexuality and also the theme of very good versus nasty. The most powerful theme surrounding the famous vampire, nevertheless , is that of fatality. Death plus the possibility of life after death permeate the novel in its most Gothic moments because the text takes in attention to a single central idea: what does this mean to live forever? That question is asked time and time again throughout the journey that each character will take and their concerns over the strangeness that encompases them, all those fears most revolve around an individual being in the shape of a male. Indeed, Depend Dracula is within possession of remarkable powers, which includes access to everlasting life, as well as the effect of his presence on dozens of with who he comes in contact is undeniable. He delivers with him the understanding that the afterlife may be much more frightening than death on its own. In that way, it would at first seem that Dracula is described as the devil, bringing facts of darkness rather than mild. Upon nearer examination, yet , Dracula’s importance is so particularly juxtaposed recover of the classic perception of Christ the fact that Count’s rendering may be examine as something more serious. The character of Dracula is meant to be Stoker’s Dark Christ, the ultimate critique of greatly organized religion and the Catholic Church, too antiquated pertaining to the modern age but not with out a strange electricity. He is a parody with weight, a cautionary tale for those who are all too willing to give up their spirits to what dreams may come in the afterlife. This figure is definitely not Satan, but rather a personality esteemed like a god, a character in possession of a large number of Christlike capabilities, a character giving eternal lifestyle.

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To be able to dissect the intention in back of Dracula’s manifestation as a Christlike figure as well as the symbolism associated with that manifestation, one need to first look at the ways in which the character with the Count is usually described and the context for said descriptions. Dracula employs many customarily Christian concepts, including the concept of conversion, the symbolic need for blood in religion and literature, the significance of antiquity, and of course the bond with endless life. Much more fascinating would be the ways in which Dracula relates to the “Wandering Jew” archetype of Stoker’s period, that stock character was likely considered as the ultimate anti-Christian or heretic, and it provided Stoker with his many convincing vampire-as-savior correlation. Dracula’s portrayal as a Dark Christ, however , can be not proof enough to summarize the final intent behind Stoker’s novel the direct recommendations to the Christian faith in Stoker’s are well since the style through which those sources are written must also end up being examined help to make an accurate evaluation of the novel’s overall sculpt. Religious faith and expressions thereof are critical, as are the various appearances of spiritual figures and symbols plus the implied discord between Catholicism and Protestantism. All of these components of the book are important in unmasking the fantastical figure of Dracula not for the sake of exposing the devil, but rather pertaining to illuminating the Dark Savior that he can intended to be.

The Character with the Vampire: The “Uncanny” Wandering Jew

In the period in which Bram Stoker composed Dracula, a social motion was afoot in his native United Kingdom. Judaism families, once barred from England, had been now coming to the country in droves. Eastern Europe, the main home to Judaism during those times, had noticed a massive exodus of it is citizens for several reasons, and immigration to England was the most well-liked choice. Between 1881 and 1900, the number of foreign Jews in England elevated by six hundred percent, a substantial change in its condition that remaining many English citizens uneasy (Zanger 34). A Christian nation, England’s traditional source of religious issue had been the tension between the older traditions with the Catholic Cathedral and the more recent ideas of Protestantism plus the Church of England. When confronted with Jewish migration, however , such tensions did not seem so great, and the Christian populace was to some extent usa by their shared some doubts of the East. The art of the time reflected that concern. The most used play from the era was Trilby, a production that prominently showcased an infamous character called Svengali, who embodied the sinister picture of the “Wandering Jew” that existed in the frenzied minds of the British. Hailing in the East while using power of head control, Svengali manipulates all of the characters that he encounters by surreptitious means. Trilby thus confirmed its target audience concerns about the danger of Wandering Jews by making use of the attraction of a darker foreign power. Stoker, who also served because friend and assistant to actor Holly Irving, was almost certainly subjected to that play and the unhappy mentality of the time, and he might have created his book in order to get that mass audience appeal (McBride 2). It is just as it can be, however , which the perceptive Stoker recognized the social value of the archetype of the Roaming Jew and used it like a blueprint so that could be considered the antithesis towards the traditional Christ figure. Like Svengali, Dracula has been identified as a “devilish Semitic middleman, ” a shyster whom “dupes the innocent into a blood pact in return for a king of immortality” (McBride 1). This individual exerts control of the thoughts of his associates, and he is threatening and dark in appearance. If perhaps contemporary audiences automatically recognized a cliched “Wanderer” from your East since the extremely opposite of refined Christianity, then Dracula’s obvious link with such a wanderer leads naturally for the conclusion the fact that Svengali-esque vampire is indeed the Antichrist that he resembles.

Furthermore, it is possible that Stoker intended his business presentation of a vampiric wandering Jew to play in to the Gothic convention of “the uncanny” that is certainly, the interpretation of an element that is similar to something “normal” or “human” but is usually yet in possession of a nearly indecipherable quality which enables said component peculiar. In short, an uncanny character may be human however not man at all, which is often said in the vampire and also of the Wandering Jew. In Stoker’s time, the concept of Judaism was overseas and yet familiar as the basis for Christianity. Due to the lack of any significant religious challengers to Christianity in the United Kingdom, the Jew made an appearance as the sole non-Christian, and then the one opposition to the Church, such resistance was for that reason a new principle to British Christians (with the exclusion of the Protestant-Catholic conflict). As well, there was an underlying sense with the uncanny in this Judaism stocks its footings with Christianity, and Jews were now pledging devotedness to the same land because Christians. Naturally , these tips result yet again in the uncanny character with the vampire man yet certainly not human, Judaism and thus anti-Christian, anti-Christian and yet strongly connected with Christ him self. The regal vampire determine rests thus neatly for the negative spectrum of all items properly “Christian” in this case, a great evil East European Jew that he is a parody of that which was expected of Christian nobility at the time. Jules Zangler proves in his composition “A Sympathetic Vibration: Dracula and the Jews” that the “insistent Christian vs anti-Christian cast Stoker impressed upon his vampire tale gave this particular significance at a time when so many non-Christians were intruding so noticeably and threateningly into the popular consciousness” (37).

The smoothness of the Goule: The Correlation with Christ Himself

Dracula’s association with Christ is embodied in several different ways, you start with the qualities he stocks and shares with the “Wandering Jew, inch which can become applied to another type of perspective. Dracula may be seen as the ultimate single-soul missionary. His home, which can be essentially a shrine to get times which has gone by, is the ceremony at which he worships, he reveres not a higher electrical power, but rather the glory of bygone days if he was at the height of his power, when he reveals to Jonathan Harker when the a pair of them discuss history (Stoker 31). Dracula’s massive estate is left behind but for his lusty wedding brides and is thus implied as a sort of commune for vampire, of which there seem to be few in the modern world. Because Christ says in the Gospels, in his Father’s house you will find “many rooms” (John 16: 2), vacant spaces expecting the pleasant of excited souls and new improvements additions such as Jonathan Harker. Dracula’s estate is his protected dwelling place, a spot where he is control. He takes the opportunity to leave it, yet , in order to get started his conversion of souls to his preferred the grave, spreading his gospel of death as he goes, dialling those to adhere to him just like Jesus called his apostles. He order, writ, directive,subpoena Lucy from her room to his grasp, and she turns into his subject. He summons Renfield to get his servant in preparation for his arrival, as well as the madman presumably transforms in the equal of Biblical prophets, referring to the Count’s appearance as the approaching of the “Master” (Stoker 56).

Like Christ, Dracula thrives on conversion, which will only be performed once his prospect (or victim) submits him- or perhaps herself to the process. This process involves the exchange and the corruption of blood, nevertheless he would likely view it since purification. Blood as a motif is especially vital in observing Dracula’s romance to Christianity “as Christ Christ’s literal and transubstantiative blood has become a mainstay with the Christian Church, the vampire figure’s insertion within the paradigms of Christianity is a rational extension” (LaPerriere 1). Instead of exchanging his own blood for the lives of his themes, Dracula functions the ultimate vicio of transubstantiation by taking out blood from his people in order to support himself and bring his converts in the fold of vampirism. As the traditional Christian relies on blood of Christ to save him from eternal suffering, thus does this “Christ” rely on blood of his “Christians” to survive. In a reflecting moment, the transformed Lucy, declared lifeless and now a vampire, is discovered nourishing on the blood vessels of a child (Stoker 103). She is a representation of reverse parenthood, an image of your woman currently taking life instead of giving it. That portrayal smacks of comments on the nature of Christianity and cell phone calls attention to the weight that both the Catholic Church and Protestantism put on tradition. Bram Stoker’s era was one among discovery and invention, a time in which the status quo seemed to be quickly and constantly evolving. Lifestyle and philosophy during that period may have proven to be challenging in comparison to organized religion, a frequent element of English language life that did not look like evolving exact same pace, and which may have even stunted the improve of interpersonal constructs and scientific breakthrough. The sapping of lifeblood from mankind in order to preserve power may have been a theme intended to strike a chord with English visitors frustrated by the disharmony of progress and convention. Once again, all of this commentary is made skin in the personality of Dracula and the function of the vampire.

Oddly enough, in selecting his planned, the Count tends even more towards girls. Dracula’s fascination to girls seems organic enough since he looks in human male form, it may yet be useful to note that he primarily targets girls rather than men to join him in his vampirism. For example , he spends enough time charming and wooing Sharon from her pleasant existence into his trap, and three women his wedding brides reside in his castle. Dracula toys with Renfield, but he would not seem thinking about Renfield’s destiny, ultimately crushing him for his betrayal. It is also well worth mentioning which the Count retains Jonathan stuck within his castle for a while, probably with designs on his soul. Jonathan’s diary, however , reveals chicken qualities and also his unusual fear and affection to get his sponsor. Still, the Count hardly ever acts in the desire for Jonathan to join him as he will with the females of the story. This inclination for females could be construed as a reference to the Bible’s depiction of the meaning inherent in marriage between men and women like a representation of humankind’s nearness with The almighty, in the parable of Christ, Jesus is usually portrayed while the lick and mankind as the bride (John 3: 29). The two are destined for each other just as Lucy is destined to answer the call of the elusive vampire and join him forever in the own personal everlasting.

Just like the traditional perception of Christ, Count Dracula offers his version of “love” and eternal life. Of course , the small print details the very fact that this appreciate comes simply through physical and mental pain and this eternal existence comes in the proper execution of a hellish, never-ending lifestyle on earth. The vampires in the novel do not appear happy in their endurance, but depressed. Dracula’s brides seem uninterested and desire for new skin, and the appearance of Jonathan in their area is cause for great enjoyment. Dracula himself seems melancholy at times too, clearly taking pleasure in Jonathan’s firm and insisting that he stay within the confines of the mansion. In the period leading up to her transformation, Sharon suffers her own soreness with superb difficulty, eventually surrendering with her new “life. ” Looking at vampirism enables the come to be last forever, but also in Hades instead of Heaven, in literal darkness rather than light. “On the main one hand, inch Christopher Raible observes, “such a desire denies any hope of the life after death. On the other, it devalues the meaning of life upon earth” (2).

Once again, this motif is far too specific to be coincidental in its references for the traditional suggestions of change and Christianity. In the end, although Count may well have the ability to live forever, Dracula’s vampirism is equivalent to captivity. It is alluring in both imagery and principle, but the character of the vampire is in the end undesirable and meant to be dreaded, vampiric nature is much more competent of control than cause can aspire to be. Are these claims an occult meaning to the Christian Church, perhaps a comment on the exciting essence of its history but the constriction of its nature? Is it an indication of dissatisfaction with promises regarded as false or maybe a disgruntled affirmation about what may well have seemed like incestuous, extremely contained fellowship within The english language churches at the moment? The significance in the text might respond to all of the above. The novel’s main focus, yet , appears to be the danger of powerful forces, especially if those pushes have secret, indecipherable features much just like those of Christian religion, a strong society that, at Stoker’s time, generally rejected the advance of culture and thrived within the authority the English federal government had bequeathed upon this.

Although Dracula’s take is effective much like that of the spiritual Christian community and Christ Himself because described in Scripture this individual does suffer and is in the end conquered. Apparently all-powerful, the Count problems regardless, looking for his way in a new world in which he has tiny experience. Dracula has no put in place a modern world, where paperwork may be changed at wonderful speed, interaction and vehicles are advancing every day, plus the wisdom of doctors and the scientifically smart make the Count’s operations steadily more difficult to conceal. Jonathan documents his experiences with all the Count being pored in the event that another must come one on one with him, Lucy is usually somewhat girded by the safeguard of medicinal service, the perceptiveness of her doctor fiance, and the wiles of the knowledgeable Truck Helsing, every one of whom use modern technology. Dracula knows that in order to accomplish his goals, he or she must take leave of his castle-haven, although he consumes a good deal of time in study and preparation to get the voyage as if reticent about seeking the trip. He maintains research materials in his collection and understands from the research of his unfortunate visitor, Jonathan, about the inner operation of this ” new world “, though he’s successful in navigating that for some time, he cannot preserve his gesse, and his undoing begins with all the slaying in the vampiric edition of Sharon, who is damaged by the expertise of non-e other than your doctor Van Helsing.

Strangely enough, it is not the pressure or horror of modernity in order to fight off Count Dracula, but rather knowledge of longevity: it is the power of the historic techniques examined by Truck Helsing that proves to become Dracula’s undoing. Primitive in function, the vampire is met with his equal in his destruction and accomplishes the raw death of an old monster in an acknowledgement that what belongs to the past has no place elsewhere. It truly is curious that Stoker would not choose to do apart with his great figure by way of technology, in line with the Christ-Dracula comparison, however , it seems like a fitting realization to the légende. Stoker is not condemning of history, he in fact promotes it being examined and sees a large number of uses for that. In his creation, the phony and dangerous element of yesteryear the Christ figure as well as the perceptions attached to him will be finally vanquished by a great examination of practicality from the past. It is only due to past that you recognizes the value of the present, and later through failed experimentation that mankind is alerted for the solution that may lead to accomplishment. As Ruben Steward declares, “We learn from failure, not from accomplishment! ” (Stoker 124). That will be the most pivotal sentiment found in Dracula: you can only get over the blunders of the earlier by dealing with them, you can only elevate themselves by simply releasing the persistence of haunting. And indeed, “haunting” could really be Stoker’s thought of Christianity’s technique of staying above water. In the end, the floating focal point the Christ is outdated and has to be gotten eliminate or modified in order for the glory in the new age to commence. Like Dracula, this god from the past is only a fracture in the construction of a fresh edifice of beauty and social and scientific succeed.

Religious beliefs As Offered in Dracula

One of the most interesting qualities in Dracula that supports the argument intended for the Depend as Stoker’s answer to Christ is the unique style where the novel is written. In line with the grand tradition of Gothic storytelling, Stoker utilizes the trick of including stories within the story, every serving to expose part of the total tale of Count Dracula’s journey to London. This process is referred to as a “Chinese package structure, ” and though it originated in the Medieval genre with Melmoth the Wanderer, in Dracula, the manner of revealing each character’s individual perspective, primarily through lengthy letters and recognized documents, takes in very close comparisons to non-e other than the Bible. Nevertheless unified simply by one main purpose to see the story of Jesus Christ and everything that came before and after the reports of the Holy bible are uncovered according into a great number of sources and perspectives. Information differ, but they ultimately give a cohesive standpoint. Dracula features the same way, revolving around the enigmatic, magical figure of darkness as recognized by multiple observers, each observation culminates in a last agreement dedicated to his existence and supreme destruction.

Of course , this kind of exploration of night is constantly connected with powerful images by everyday readers: the caped vampire, a coffin made for slumber, a Medieval castle in Transylvania. The most memorable photos of all, however , are spiritual in sculpt: primarily the crucifix intended to stave off the approach of vampirism. However it is not Christ or Christianity the fact that Count decreases from, as i have said previously, alternatively, it is only icons of the previous. Once again, by close evaluation one the actual discovery that imagery is just that: symbolism. Pomp and circumstance is certainly associated with Christianity, especially in the Catholic Church, and here, in keeping with Stoker’s depiction of religion since belonging to an old age, the Church can be evaluated because mere antiquity. Here it is boiled down to symbols that affect the particular Count fantastic memories of past lives.

One more very striking issue with consider to the style of Stoker’s book lies inside what is certainly not mentioned. There is also a peculiar absence in the new of virtually any exploration of faith based. True faith in Our god, Christ, or perhaps vital trust placed in structured religion is usually not investigated or paid. Though the history is rife with the above mentioned religious overtones and though Jonathan and Veta are prone to sayings such as, “We are all drifting reefwards right now, and hope is the only anchor” (Stoker 254) there is very little specific mention of Christianity or perhaps its capability to battle the evil currently happening. Mena and more mention plea, but just in passing and often in prattling, reliant distress, avoid the confidence one would be prepared to see placed in such a spiritual tool. The country nuns who supply the only significant connection to the Church are trustworthy although inconsequential. When they are attractive nursing a scarred Jonathan back to overall health, they are terrified by his staggering tale of the Count’s castle and impotent with regards to the vampire’s defeat. That may be an unusual statement at first, specifically considering the remarkable Catholic images used over the tale. You cannot find any religious habit or power of God, however , that battles the unexplained supernatural benefits of Dracula, ultimately he is slain by mortals, thus enriching the selfishness that this individual and his turns are the only supernatural forces found in the story. In Stoker’s world, the Church holds no true power, an undeniable fact that enriches the notion of the novel as being a challenge for the oppressive tradition of prepared religion and strengthens the figure of Dracula as a perverse presentation of Christ himself.

Still, we have a small yet fascinating thread running throughout the story that draws a great amount of attention to the partnership of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Chapel, and it looks like Stoker can be challenging his readers to reassess their assumptions. Both Jonathan and Mena will be moved by care of the peaceful nuns, but even more interesting is definitely Jonathan’s appeal and attachment to the crucifix that an older woman gives to him. After getting in Dracula’s home for a moment, Jonathan writes:

Bless that good, very good woman who hung the crucifix rounded my the neck and throat! For it is actually a comfort and a strength in my experience whenever I actually touch this. It is peculiar that a thing which I had been taught to regard with disfavor so that as idolatrous ought to in a time of loneliness and trouble be of help. Is it that there is something inside the essence with the thing on its own, or that it is a medium, a tangible help, in conveying memories of sympathy and comfort? A little while, if it may be, I must look at this matter and try to make-up my mind about it” (Stoker 53).

Finally, in order to bring about Dracula’s defeat at the conclusion of the story, each of the character types come together to battle their common enemy in spite of their a number of religious association. In a novel so intensely laden with religious overtones, this truth does not seem to be insignificant. Meters. West, in her content “Hauntings inside the Church: Fake Christianity throughout the Fin-de-Siècle Gothic Novel, inches suggests that Stoker felt as though “the tips of redemption and salvation¦ were more important than what he perceived being trivial fights about doctrinal variations” (West 35). If this sounds so , then simply Jonathan’s association with Protestantism and his appeal to the Catholic Church are also not with out significance actually his emotions aid the argument that Stoker’s building of a Christlike figure is supposed to demonstrate the failing of structured religion to succeed, suggesting that faith and goodness instead of staunch theology and law will be triumphant in the end.


To conclude, with a piece of perspective and research, the typical equivocation of Count Dracula to the devil grows less and less certain, and indications the definitive goule may attract more evaluation to the Christian savior’s antithesis become more apparent. Though no-one may at any time know whether Bram Stoker’s true intention for his Gothic work of art was to criticize the obsolete yet strong functions of Christianity that permeated his country, there are many hints to this effect. No matter, the vampire has been slain. There is no place for him in the modern world, Stoker implies. Admiration for the useful things that the Chapel has offered us is very important, but one must not allow oneself to get suckered in by the intimate idea of this figure, this kind of perverted Christ, who claims eternal life only to catch those who trust him and use them intended for his personal purposes. In the present00 age, you will find great and building plots at work, minus the accessibility of a Oriental box-style guide to the world, it is necessary to be on guard in order to not to be overtaken by the power of days gone by.


1 . Evans, Elrena. “THERE’S POWER IN THE BLOOD. ” Christianity Today 54. a couple of (2010): thirty-six. MasterFILE Top. EBSCO. Net. 13 Interest. 2010.

Evans shows the current and consistent passion with the immortal, ultimately ending that a Christian’s interest in this kind of topics is not bad but positive, through imaginary vampires just like Dracula, one can explore and study being human. She also claims that Dracula is a great Antichrist number (Elrena 1). This article will become useful since the correlation between Dracula and the notion of Antichrist can be an element I would like to explore.

2 . Herbert, Steven G. “Dracula as metaphor to get human wicked. ” Diary of Religion and Psychical Analysis 27. 2 (2004): 62-71. ATLA Faith Database with ATLASerials. EBSCO. Web. 13 Apr. 2010.

Herbert draws awareness of the concept of Dracula as the supreme in human being evil, defeated only by the power of hope and religion. He says that figures just like Dracula help “regular people” examine “our own shadow in a significantly less threatening way” (Herbert 1). Stoker’s operate allows us to confront our own being human by bringing out our more outrageous and negative attributes, allowing us to assess each of our shortcomings and bring stability to our viewpoints. This is essential, as a great unbalanced persona is a risky one, this kind of “monsters” of all time as Hitler and Stalin were people who became overpowered by simply archetype. Dracula, Herbert says, “most concisely presents to us a metaphor of human wicked distilled to its most insidiously best form” (Herbert 1). This and Raible’s article spotlight what I desire to explore additional in my daily news, the concept of Dracula as the supreme evil, and the question of whether or not he symbolizes human bad or the contrary of Christ in morality and mortality.

3. LaPerriere, M. “Unholy transubstantiation: Christifying the vampire and demonizing the blood. ” Diss. Universite para Montreal (Canada), 2008. Dissertations Theses: Full Text, ProQuest. Web. 13 Apr. 2010.

LaPerriere focuses on the importance of blood as nourishment to the classic vampire, reminding readers this sustenance, “as Jesus Christ’s literal and transubstantiative blood vessels, has been a pillar of the Christian Church, [and] the vampire figure’s attachment within the paradigms of Christianity is a logical extension” (LaPerriere 1). In addition, she reminds visitors that during Victorian moments the loss of blood was equated with disease, and that such disease could be spread sexually, and therefore sinfully. I will employ this article during my paper when ever equating Dracula with the Christ/Antichrist archetype.

4. Marks, John. “In Dracula, a Metaphor intended for Faith and Rebirth. ” All Things Considered, twenty one March 08. Research Catalogue Core, ProQuest. Web. 13 Apr. 2010.

Author discusses Dracula as the key to Christian conversion, drawing attention to what he identifies as the “great anxiety of the publication, ” which usually he views as “the struggle between rational fact and great reality” (Marks 1). I would like to use Marks’s article below because of the struggle with the great, something that pertains to faith and religion, likewise belonging in the supernatural category with Dracula, another component that lines up his presence with Christ.

five. McBride, Bill Thomas. “Dracula and Mephistopheles: Shyster Vampires. ” Literary works Film Quarterly 18. two (1990): 116. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 13 Apr. 2010.

McBride’s piece gives further description and data as to Depend Dracula’s alignment with the archetypal “Wandering Jew. ” This individual compares the novel towards the 1931 film version then insists that Dracula is presented being a “devilish Semitic middleman, inch a shyster who “dupes the innocent into a blood vessels pact in substitution for a ruler of immortality” (McBride 1). This character is comparable to Faust’s Devil and, to some extent, Shakespeare’s Shylock. McBride also shows the a comparison of Dracula to Goethe’s Mephistopheles and proves that the Count has joined “the shadowy group of Shylock and Fagin and Mephistopheles, who, as crypto-Abrahams, induct some gullible goy right into a blood-inscribed covenant. ” This is useful for my own essay because it is another origin aligning Dracula with the archetypal Jew, the strongest level of resistance to Christianity as the Victorians recognized it.

6. Phila., D. and Ressner, J. “Wake Up and Smell the Garlic. ” Time 163. seventeen (2004): 20. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 13 Apr. 2010.

The writers emphasize the demand for Dracula and vampirism over the past two decades. They will suggest the reason for this is the existence of a spiritual divide in the media (Philadelphia Ressner 1). This is helpful for my composition as it reminds the reader that religious issues seem to result in the popular vampire trends, both now in addition to Stoker’s period.

7. Raible, Captain christopher G. “Dracula: Christian heretic. ” Christian Century 96. 4 (1979): 103-104. ATLA Religion Repository with ATLASerials. EBSCO. Internet. 13 Interest. 2010.

In Raible’s article, states that the topics of Dracula are direct “mirror” inversions of Christian values. This individual reminds readers that the existence of Christianity in the story is merely emblematic, such as the accord wafer which has the power to cleanse. Besides the Eucharist, a wafer is not in or of itself ay. “To claim that objects may well themselves radiate divine electricity is to decrease religion to magic” (Raible 1). Typically, Raible is usually preoccupied together with the concept of Dracula as the ultimate heretic, “taking life so that he may live” as well as living forever in eternal existence, but simply on earth and shrouded in darkness. To actually want to live in our planet the same way forever is a Christian heresy. “On the one hands, such a desire denies any expect of a life after death, on the other, that devalues this is of life on earth” (Raible 2). (Also find Herbert. )

8. Stiles, Anne. “Cerebral Automatism, the mind, and the Heart in Bram Stoker’s Dracula. ” Log of the History of the Neurosciences 15. 2 (2006): 131-152. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 13 Apr. 2010.

Through this essay, Stiles illuminates the connection between Stoker’s Dracula and neurology, an interest on which Stoker had vast knowledge. His composition paperwork for Dracula include information on somnambulism and trance declares and check out theories that scientists during the time were continue to developing most importantly, the concept that human actions were not thus human in the end and had been in fact merely reflexes