Introduction In this bit of coursework I am answering three questions depending on the United States involvement in the Vietnam War. I am looking at the way the U. T became progressively involved Vietnam, the problems facing U. S soldiers and the anti war movement in the usa. Question you Explain for what reason the United States started to be increasingly active in the war in Vietnam.
Since the end from the nineteenth century the French got ruled the Asian region of Vietnam. After their 1940 eliminate during Universe War Two by Germany, the Japanese (German allies) took over Vietnam assets. During the conflict an anti Japanese motion, named the Viet Minh emerged. We were holding led with a communist innovator named Ho Chi Minh who influenced the Thai to guard independence. If the war was over the Viet Minh handled the North part of Vietnam and announced Vietnam independent.
The French went back in the hopes of once again judgment Vietnam and war broke out. Mainly because Ho Chi Minh had not proclaimed his desire for a Communist Vietnam, the Viet Minh were sympathised by simply countries like the U. S i9000. A. However when Communists took over in Chinese suppliers and started helping the Ho Chi Minh the Americans found the Viet Minh as being a cover for the Chinese communists. The US started to support french dramatically, to be able to prevent a Viet Minh take over.
French then set up a govt in To the south Vietnam. The war continued until 1954 when by Dien Adecuadamente Phu a force of French paratroopers were defeated. The French dropped around 11, 000 men and the Viet Minh (with support from the USSR and China) had been victorious. Portugal had got enough and left Viet Nam.
Through grit dedication a small group had conquered a major Western state. This scared the USA as they thought that other noncommunist countries may possibly see the Viet Minh’s success and determined that communism is the strategy to any complications they may possess. At a 1954 serenity conference the nation was broken into North and South right up until an selection could be organised.
The USA’s initial reaction to the French departing was stress; they assumed that if perhaps Vietnam became a communist country, after that other countries surrounding Vietnam would as well fall to communism. It was known as the Domino Theory, and the fact that the Viet Minh got just defeated a major power only elevated the USA’s fear that other countries would adhere to Vietnam in communism hoping to solve their very own problems. If perhaps all these countries did show up to communism then the ALL OF US also thought that all their trading sector would be broken, as they assumed communist countries would not wish to control with these people.
The US averted elections going on because they will feared the Communists might win. That they helped Ngo Dinh Diem set up the Republic of South Vietnam in 1955 because Ngo was really anti-communist and was willing to imprison any communists. The US hoped that he be able to take control of North Vietnam as well.
The U. S ongoing to support Southern region Vietnam because they assumed they were assisting to prevent the spread of The reds. They thought that all by informing the world they were against the reds would make other countries undertake their values. The USA had been gradually becoming more and more involved in Vietnam, pumping more and more money in the anti-communist efforts in the expect that they may destroy people’s beliefs that communism was obviously a way out. It was also a matter of pride to get the USA as for many years they were in a frosty war with USSR a communist region. The USA experienced pledged to aid all countries and people that wanted to keep their liberties in 1947 when President Truman built speech, which usually came to be referred to as Truman cortege.
With USSR supplying and giving aid to communist countries throughout Asia this did not include only about Vietnam but demonstrating to the USSR that America would not back down. This was regarding proving what President Truman had stated. America would never let the communists take a nation if they could make it.
Although America continued to pump millions of dollars into them, the corrupt anti-communist government of Ngo Dinh Diem as well as the equally corrupt governments that followed him only increased the support of communism in the southern. This led to a dramatic increase in the numbers of the communist-led National Front pertaining to the Liberation of South Vietnam, who had been generally termed as the Viet Cong. Among their numbers had been South Vietnamese opponents for the government and also Northern Japanese who had the support of Ho Chihuahua Minh.
These people knew the jungles and terrain of Vietnam extremely well and had been prepared for any military attacks should they come. In 1961 the Viet Cong began a guerrilla war to clear South Vietnam of the anti-communist government. They will attacked government building pushes as well as American bases.
In answer to this the US sent armed service advisers’ to fight the Viet Cong. The People in america knew that they could not destroy the Communists in the North politically because they had simply too much support. The Viet Cong teased peasants in to helping them, and many Buddhists were angered over the persecution many of them received from the Christian government in South Vietnam. The support for the Viet Cong was elevating day by day.
They were ridding Vietnam of the govt that persecuted so many of their fellow Buddhists. The Americans knew that to have any chance of defeating the Communists and destroying communism through Vietnam, they need to use their particular military electrical power. The USA assumed that this could surely not fail, especially after all their defeat more than major capabilities such as Asia and Germany. This was a huge turning point while this resulted in military actions was right now being carried out officially. Among 1962 and 1964 the united states doubled the quantity of troops in Vietnam, nevertheless President Kennedy said he would not blunder into battle, unclear of aims or perhaps how to get away again.
But whether or not they realised that or not really the USA had been becoming increasingly mixed up in conflict, that they rapidly improved the amount of troops in Vietnam because they will realised that gaining a victory over this tiny nation will be a lot harder than they will first thought, thanks to the Viet Cong’s brilliant guerrilla tactics. The USA was being dragged in this conflict because of their obduracy, pigheadedness to let the reds get one over on them. One more turning point came in 1963 once President Kennedy was assassinated, this delivered shockwaves across the world but even more crucially to America’s involvement in the battle, it meant he would get replaced with a successor, Lyndon Manley.
President Johnson was far more committed to coming into the USA in a full-scale conflict. Soon after his term commenced North Japanese ships opened up fire about US boats in the Gulf of mexico of Tonkin. The US our elected representatives was mad and in response passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. This kind of gave President Johnson capacity to take all necessary actions to prevent further aggression’.
Simply put it designed he can take the USA in to an all away war with Vietnam. And he would. On 9th March 1965, 3500 marine corps, combat soldiers (not army advisers) boarded ashore by Da Nang. This was a tremendous change in that this meant the united states was right now fully for war with Vietnam and admitted that.
The military advisers’ they had so far directed had done little to quell the support pertaining to communism inside the North as well as the South of Vietnam. The united states was anticipating this being an easy battle thanks to their particular vast array of technology and especially trained military. By 1965 the Viet Cong acquired around 170, 000 military at their disposal.
Their very own weapons were supplied via communist Cina and the USSR. As I possess previously mentioned the Vietnam Warfare was likewise about sending a message towards the USSR that America may not back down regardless of how awkward their very own position can be among the world and even their own people. Ho Chi Minh (leader of the Japanese communist effort) soon noticed that his Viet Cong were no match to get the To the south Vietnamese plus the Americans in open warfare.
At La Dreng Valley in 1965 UNITED STATES forces killed 2000 Viet Cong and lost simply 300. This allowed the American to see the world that their assurance was not missing. But Ho Chi Minh was not being out carried out and utilized guerrilla methods on the US army. Faccion soldiers could not easily end up being distinguished via normal people and they used simple techniques; retreat when the USA disorders, pursue after they retreat, raid when they are slept in tents and assault when they tyre.
These cowardly’ tactics might help supply the Viet Cong an edge in the war. All their aim was wear down with the morale of enemy soldiers and that worked. With all the Viet Cong bouncing backside the US government was left requiring more soldiers.
The troops already in Vietnam got low honnete; something the US government believed probably would not help them against the Viet Cong. Therefore that they had to increase the quantity of troops operating out of Vietnam. They will used appel to gain soldiers and reduced the objectives needed of a soldier to achieve entry to the army. This meant the USA was applying soldiers unaccustomed in the war effort.
Some of them died right after being placed in Vietnam, which resulted in more troop were all over again needed. This kind of circle extended until the end of the USA’s involvement. One more the USA became more strongly involved in the conflict was that we were holding losing more men everyday.
Although the ALL OF US death fee paled when compared to that of the Viet Cong’s, they were still losing a lot of guys males they necessary to carry out their very own operations and attacks. Hence the USA was required to increase out and out aggression and engagement to lower the quantity of men dieing in Vietnam. Part of this kind of increased violence included Operation Rolling Thunder. Launched within the 7th March 1967 that involved comprehensive bombing raids on armed service and industrial targets in North Vietnam.
This air flow offensive could last until 1972, as well as its list of goals eventually included towns in North and South Vietnam. One of its main targets was the Ho Chihuahua Minh trail, which supplied the Viet Cong with supplies in the North. The USA constantly bombed this area but it really was to zero avail. Thousands of communist staff worked constantly to keep it wide open ensuring the Viet Cong were very well supplied. The USA dropped more bombs in North Vietnam during this period than what was lowered in Australia during the Ww2.
This method performed to a certain extent. The bombing disrupted the aforementioned supply routes, it allowed the USA to keep attacking the Vietcong actually after they started to withdraw in 1969, and from 70 to 1972 bombings upon Hanoi plus the port of Haiphong required North Japanese leaders to begin negotiating. Yet this performed little in addition to slow the communists down.
Thanks to the devoted communist workers supply routes were managed and the Viet Cong were still capable to launch key attacks for the South. The USA was suffering in costs as well as in soldiers. In 1967 an American publication calculated that for every Viet Cong jet fighter the US armed service killed it will cost them $400, 500.
This was a large amount and was one of the reasons the protesting increased in America during this time period. This was another reason the USA walked up participation in Vietnam. They had began this campaign with confidence, although after a whilst American started to wonder if these people were doing decent. So the ALL OF US government and army improved involvement to prove to its people that we were holding doing the ideal thing. Over the Vietnam Battle the USA employed many techniques to ruin the Vietnamese.
They elevated their participation almost step-by-step. One of the main immediate reasons the USA increased engagement was mainly because they cannot defeat the communists politically. In recent memory the Japanese had been reigned over over by the French plus the Japanese and wanted to always be independent and if communism was your way their particular religious beliefs would be respected then they had been all for it. The USA was also, during the time, in the middle of a chilly war with Russia.
A win over communism North Vietnam would boost their confidence as well as the ethical of Americans. Also in 1947 President Truman made a speech that came to be know as the Truman Doctrine. He guaranteed to help anyone that desired to maintain their liberties.
The USA believed they had to honour this kind of right from the start. The USA also thought that if perhaps Vietnam fell to the reds then different countries adjacent it would as well. Known as the Domino Theory this a long-term reason for the USA entering the war, as they did not want to let communism spread beyond it previously had.
Additionally, they felt their trade industry would be greatly damaged if they did absolutely nothing. They desired to send a note to other countries that even though little Vietnam experienced just defeated a major electricity (France) the reds was not the answer to all with their problems plus the USA may not tolerate that. Also because the battle continued the USA’s death toll increased.
This meant that the USA had to increase participation by submitting less educated troops and putting into effect offensives such as Going Thunder. Additionally, the fact the fact that USA at first underestimated the Viet Cong meant that they had to keep elevating the amount of troops, money and firepower these people were putting in to war thus they could destroy the communists. The united states was likewise fighting against it’s very own people the protestors.
The US government was required to increase involvement so they will could get an outcome and show their particular people that the actual were carrying out was not fruitless. The Us citizens knew that so many people acquired great beliefs in the reds. They believed that by simply destroying that in Vietnam, they would send a message out throughout the world that communism will and will not ever work, but ultimately by underestimating the Viet Cong, by not respecting the native persons and by not adapting for the conditions they will entered a battle they might never win.
Question two Study Origin A. Do you agree with this kind of interpretation from the problem encountered by United states of america Soldiers in Vietnam? Make use of the source and knowledge from your studies to describe your response. Source A states the United States military were as well inexperienced to be fighting up against the Viet Cong guerrilla troops who were struggling on their own grounds, which they realized extremely well. An increasing number of recruits scored so low on the cleverness tests that they would never have been let in the normal peacetime army.
The source declares that an increasing number of military were being recruited despite if she is not up to the usual U. S army criteria, but it will not give us a specific number or maybe a percentage of troops. Therefore the percentage of soldiers not smart enough may only include risen by 1% or perhaps a fraction of that. However via 1962 to 1969 the quantity of United States soldiers rose via well underneath 100, 500 to a lot more than 500, 1000. Therefore it is probably that since the death toll flower and more military returned residence after their particular one year stays on the U. S government lowered it’s standards in what makes a Us soldier.
Thus obviously these kinds of dumb’ troops would have more trouble adapting to the new environment, along with becoming problems to various other soldiers. The tour of duty in Vietnam was one year. Military were probably to expire in the 1st month.
The best majority of deaths took place inside the first half a year. Just as a soldier began gaining knowledge he was delivered home. Due to the paralyzing desparation of the U. S soldires search for troops many troops were directed over to Vietnam untrained and unprepared. Clearly this make life to them difficult as they are in an alien country struggling in conditions of which they may have never viewed before within their lives. As luck would have it, as the source states, after a while as the gift (those that survived anyway) gained knowledge in the new world terrains his stay in Vietnam was more than.
A rookie army was constantly throwing inexperienced men against experienced guerrillas issues home floor. The original source was drafted in 1992, a full 19 years following your USA’s part in the conflict had concluded, so all of us cannot state it is a major source of details. Also by 1992 it had been generally recognized that the USA had dropped the Vietnam War. It was a huge big surprise.
Small North Vietnam with its guerrilla troops and peasants had conquered arguably the world’s greatest major power. Something certainly not admitted in January 1973 when (at the time) current Leader Nixon said the peacefulness agreement between both sides since peace with honour’ just for South Vietnam to land to the reds by 1975. What this means is that by simply 1992 there would have been longer to scrutinize the techniques used by the government, which may have discovered even more faults and mistakes.
This might have affected the author into writing something a lot harsher on the U. S, than he would have done if To the south Vietnam experienced never gone down to the reds. Question a few Is there enough evidence in sources A to Farrenheit to explain how come there was a great anti-war motion in the United States throughout the late 1960’s and early on 1970’s? While the fatality toll increased and more men came residence without limbs there was an increasing amount of protestors to the war. The evidence provided in source At the is not really anti-American or perhaps anti-war it can be simply saying that the multimedia is the main reason behind the anti war activity in the USA.
This states the way the ghastly pictures presented on tv screens across the US are responsible for the protest teams and marche. The war on television displays has made American far more anti militarist and anti battle than whatever else. (Source E) Regular everyday people in the united states were browsing hundreds of pictures showing their particular people (and Vietnamese people) dieing and pain which naturally made them sick. Blood looks incredibly red for the colour tv set screen. (Source E) The source is saying that more and more Americans are beginning to hate the warfare daily.
This is because they are watching in their own living rooms precisely the same horrors the soldiers are seeing. For the first time in history anyone coming from grandmothers to toddlers were able to view people dieing and screaming in pain. Obviously most people will be horrified with these pictures, especially those who had been not about during WORLD WAR II -young persons in their twenties and young adults. Young people were at the epicentre of the protesting, and the reality television came into existence an extremely well-liked medium among young people by late 60s, only meant that these photo were being viewed by a huge percentage of young people, whom developed anti war statements, which then might have been passed on to other users of their household.
The complete brutality with the combat will be there in close-up and in colour. (Source E) This resource is very reliable as it was made at the time of the case, the presenter (Robin Day) is neutral and therefore unbiased and it only declares why there is an anti-war movement in the united states not who or precisely what is to blame. Its only is actually that it does not mention any kind of facts of figures; this only lets us know of this person’s opinion without backing it up factually. The battle with television screens has made People in america far more anti militarist and anti war than anything else. (Source E) Following on from Source E is source B a picture of two children screaming and operating down the street.
They been subjects of napalm, a dreadful weapon that inflicts burns on the victim used by the American to destroy Viet Cong military. Americans weren’t just browsing images of their own people, but of children and old folk too. The simple fact that one child is completely naked and the various other screaming in terror produced people realise that the U. S is definitely subjecting blameless people to these kinds of horrors, not merely the communists. Of course we know that the People in the usa never bitten innocents deliberately, but children seeing an image like this inside their newspaper or perhaps on the television set would be terrified that other children, much like their own children are being exposed to death and pain.
This will make any mother cry out in shock and the natural way. The Americans ere informing people that the communists were evil and should be ceased, yet inside the eyes of countless Americans living at home it had been the U. S burning up crops and killing innocent children, and naturally this kind of only increased anti conflict feelings. Seeing as source N is a image it does not present us with an opinion, rather it lets us draw our personal opinion from it. However it is just one particular photograph, describing one function.
We are certainly not told in the event this was incident or deliberately. The picture leads audiences into considering the USA performed this purposely but this was not the case, the USA army were aiming to damage Viet Cong but mainly because they were perfectly hidden they often times injured innocents and peasants, this was frequently carelessly but it really was never the much less a mistake. The American people were not the only ones expanding hatred on the U. S army.
A large number of Vietnamese (Southern as well as Northern) began to understand that they would do not have seen the atrocities caused by mortars, bombs and napalm if the U. S hadn’t involved alone in the first place. One does not defoliate (destroy plants in) a rustic and deform its individuals with chemicals in the event one is seeking to persuade these people of the foe’s evil characteristics. (Source C) Due to these anti ALL OF US feelings (and the fact the Viet Cong often teased people in aiding them) many more Vietnamese peasants joined up with the rebellion. This resulted in the Americans were facing opposition in their own facets as well as in the jungles and the Southern region. A mortar shell royaume right in the middle of the patrol.
A number of guys are dead other folks are shouting in pain. Did one of them (the peasants) lob the mortar? (Source A) This as well meant that the U. S soldiers themselves were starting to think if perhaps there was virtually any point to the conflict. That seemed to these people that the peasants themselves needed communism and they were struggling for no one. When they went back home to America most of them spread these kinds of views and feelings among the American persons, telling all of them that the Thai peasants these were fighting pertaining to had started up them thanks to the accidental casualties caused by the American upon innocents.
One does not use napalm on villages and hamlets sheltering civilians if one is attempting to persuade they of the rightness of one’s cause. (Source C) An American journalist wrote this kind of source during the events. This meant that having been in the thicker of the action and capable of take in all the media storm and the protesting and judge for him self what this individual thought, and thus this origin should be cared for as very reliable details. But it is merely the viewpoint of one reporter airing his views; it is not necessarily the thoughts of a great number of people and thus should come under a lot of scrutiny.
As well the American media was presenting a huge selection of ghastly photos and information at the time, our company is not told if this kind of journalist can be working for anti-war, pro battle or a fairly neutral medium. We could not informed if the place where he performs is assisting one perspective or another. Judging by comments just like, One will not blast hamlets to dirt with high-explosives from fly planes a long way in the sky without warning in the event one is trying to woo those living right now there to the benefits of one’s cause, I would say he is definitely supportive of just one cause within the other. However the horrible images on television displays were not the only reason People in america developed anti-war feelings.
The war in Vietnam was eating up at America’s money. The government came under weighty fire to get spending excessive on the battle instead of aiding its own desolate and needy. There sights were that, why should we all spend a great deal on various other countries during your time on st. kitts is more being done in mine? Source G is a pulling from a British magazine titled Punch and it was imprinted in 1967. It shows a coach bearing it The U. S Economic system, with it’s gas fire becoming fed by chopped up wooden carts it is tugging bearing the title The Wonderful Society.
The smoke cigarettes coming out of the train gets the word Vietnam embossed inside it. It reveals how Chief executive Johnson’s perspective to feed and shield the homelessprovide more education and medical care, (Source D) was being thrown away to fund what a large number of thought was a needless warfare. Obviously because the mass media continued to present these sights many Americans will be angered in the fact that all their taxes were going to a war many of them did not desire instead of nourishing and sheltering the desolate. As I possess previously mentioned with the television staying broadcasted today all over America, mediums such as this were effective in spreading messages and viewpoints within days.
And so naturally this will inspire thoughts of anti-war among various American persons. However this source is definitely from an english magazine a land that experienced nothing to perform with the Vietnam War. Britain had vast experience inside the consequences of wars and wanted nothing to do while using war in Vietnam (much like in Globe War Two where the British government attempted everything it could to avoid battle with Australia including appeasement). Therefore the United kingdom press would be likely to criticise the way the ALL OF US was investing in a warfare, which they regarded pointless, rather than spending that on the U. S. A’s own persons.
This means that this kind of source could well be biased against the Americans, since the Uk press might be trying to persuade the British people that they are really doing the proper thing by simply staying out of the war and that the United States are merely ruining their own people by its investing in the conflict. The way the United States recruited/conscripted soldiers also received fire. An increasing number of recruits have scored so low on the cleverness tests that they can would never have been completely let in to the normal peacetime army. (Source A) This would raise heavy problems among the American public why the government was allowing these types of troops to fight in alien conditions especially when we were holding not smart or well-trained enough to fight.
Soldiers were most likely to pass away in the first month. The large majority of deaths took place inside the first 6 months. (Source A) The very fact that the federal government were mailing inexperienced troops over to die within half a year would outrage many Americans. The American media would pick up on this, thus these figures would be spread across America pretty quickly. This resource was drafted in 1992, nineteen years after the end of America’s involvement inside the war got ended. What this intended is that it might be biased, because by then it had been generally acknowledged that the U. S had lost the war, which has been a major disappointed.
A small number of guerrilla practitioners had defeated one of the greatest soldires in the world. This meant that ALL OF US tactics had been closely scrutinized in the years following about from the warfare. This means that the writer would probably end up being biased against America and its tactics, while by then most people believed the US had been struggling with a dropping battle the moment they came into the jungles and he would not want to visit against these kinds of theories and beliefs.
In the film Given birth to On The 4th Of July we are displayed a man is eager to become a member of the US military to serve in Vietnam. His name is usually Ron Kovic and this film is the biography of his life. While serving Ron and other soldiers slaughter a grouping of innocent cowboys, including women and children.
Through the heat of battle this individual accidentally shoots one of his fellow soldiers, killing him. He is simply told to forget about this kind of and go forward. During one more battle a lot of bullets twisted him, pushing him out of the war.
Ron later understands he is paralysed from the midsection down, robbing him with the things this individual once loved such as football and wrestling. Adding to this when he comes back home this individual discovers not everyone is supporting of the battle, his family seemed to possess turned on the government they when supported. Ron begins to appreciate that the war is for practically nothing and becomes part of the anti-war movement joining protests and demonstrations. This kind of source particulars the growing resentment with the veterans on the government with the country they fought for.
As they come back home paralysed and injured many of the soldiers decided that they can do not desire anyone else to undergo what they have gone through. The original source shows the anti-war movement increased to become stronger due to help of experts, of which Ron Kovic becomes a torchbearer for. The anti war movements could not end up being ignored as not only did it consist of the rest of us but Vietnam veterans too who pass on the word with the conditions as well as the lifestyle that awaits long term soldiers. This kind of source is known as a detailed piece of primary data. Although the film and the book were made after Ron’s component in the Vietnam War, these people were both produced from events that happened while Ron was there.
Alternatively, it could be said that this supply is a biased piece of information. Ron started out as a guy in love with his country, having been willing to fight for his home, but following his incident he little by little begins to make a decision that his efforts have already been for nothing. The end of the film is filled with anti-war beliefs and no doubt that Ron will not have presented us these kinds of thoughts got it not been for his accident. Because of this this source, however tragic it may be, can be biased.
Exactly the same thing that happened to Ron would have been happening before he traveled to Vietnam nevertheless he made a decision to ignore the protestors until intended for him it had been too late. To put it briefly these resources show different reasons why there was a great anti-war motion in the USA. Each of them have merits with which they could be deemed since reliable and properties that demerit these people such as prejudiced views or no facts to back views up.
Nevertheless they contain one similar motif, they do make clear why there was an anti war motion in the USA back in the 1960’s and early 1970’s There were many reasons as to why there were an anti-war movement through the Vietnam Warfare. For the first time of all time people were capable of view the complete terror of conflict off their living rooms. Blood looks incredibly red on the colour tv screen. (Source E) This resulted in many people, young and old, were able to view the fact that was happening on their own and not depend on what they are informed by the authorities.
People throughout America may watch Vietnamese children screaming in soreness, they could watch American men brought off aircraft in body bags and everything they had to accomplish was start up the television. Viewing something is a lot more influential than hearing this and many American realized this kind of. Therefore it had not been long until the anti-war activity began.
One wonders if a future democracy which experienced uninhibited tv set coverage in each and every home is ever going to be able to battle a warfare, however merely. (Source E) Various American were enraged with the fact that their very own government was spending money on the war that can go to their own homeless and dieing. All of these reasons resulted in for the first time in America’s record people chatted up against their very own countries activities in battle and rebelled.
Veterans going back from action were able to inform people what was really similar to Vietnam and spread the word that they did not want any longer young People in the usa entering the war. (Source F) People in america all over in reports their soldiers weren’t experienced enough to be facing the Faccion soldiers from the Viet Cong and were obviously outraged. An raising number of recruits scored and so low on intelligence assessments that they would not have been allow into the usual peacetime military services. (Source A) Of course without the method of tv set many people would not allow us anti-war emotions. What this means is that television set is the biggest reason why there was a great anti-war activity.
Blood looks very red on the color television display. (Source E) What this means is the when you are up to date with current technologies the USA created it’s own worst foe in terms of propaganda and the protestors best friend.