Contents some Computer-Aided Translating services and Solutions Workbenches Translation support tools and solutions Localization tools Commercial computer-aided translation tools Criteria for data interchange Summary 5 Evaluating Translation Tools Equipment translation systems Computer-aided translating tools Stakeholders Analysis methods Standard frameworks to get evaluating translation tools Conclusion 6th Recent Developments and Upcoming Directions Equipment translation systems Computer-aided translating tools Translation devices with presentation technology. Translation systems to get minority languages Translation on the internet Machine translation systems as well as the semantic world wide web The localization industry Summary 7 Translation Types Revisited Relationships between topics and translation types Machine translation systems Computer-aided translation tools Bottom line Appendices Referrals Index 93 93 106 113 117 119 128 129 129 131 133 hundratrettiofem 139 151 152 152 156 157 162 164 166 170 171 172 173 191 193 195 197 204 218 List of Figures, Dining tables and Bins Figures 1 ) 1 1 . 2 1 . 3 1 . 4 1 ) 5 2 . 1 2 . 2 2 . 3 installment payments on your 4 installment payments on your 5 2 . 6 2 . 7 2 . 8 installment payments on your 9 2 . 10 installment payments on your 11 2 . 12 2 . 13 a few.
1 three or more. 2 three or more. 3 several. 4 3. 5 several. 6 3. 7 three or more. 8 three or more. 9 Classification of translation types Equipment translation model Machine translation system based upon usage Human-aided machine translation model Machine-aided human translation model Chronology of translation theories Translation process model Example of phrase representations Holmes’ schema of translation research A schema of applied translation studies An auto dvd unit of the translation process which include pre- and post-editing tasks Example of an English SL text message and its pre-edited version Unedited and post-edited Spanish equipment translation end result Example of organic and manipulated languages.
Example of original The english language text as well as AECMA basic English variation Example of organic English, basic English and simplified Persia texts Sort of an English handled language textual content and its goedkoop Illustration with the translation procedure using a machine translation program Chronology of machine translation development Example of structural representations. Machine translation architectures Immediate translation style Interlingua version Interlingua multi-lingual machine translation system model Transfer unit Transfer using tree-to-tree parsing Transfer multilingual machine translation system model ix 7 on the lookout for 10 12 13 twenty three 29 thirty-one 37 42 43 forty-four 46 forty-eight 50 51 53 54 58 sixty-eight 68 seventy 72 72 74 seventy five 76 by List of Numbers, Tables and Boxes several.
10 3. 11 a few. 12 three or more. 13 some. 1 some. 2 some. 3 4. 4 four. 5 four. 6 some. 7 four. 8 four. 9 four. 10 4. 11 four. 12 some. 13 4. 14 four. 15 4. 16 some. 17 four. 18 5. 19 some. 20 four. 21 4. 22 5. 1 your five. 2 5. 3 your five. 4 five. 5 6th. 1 6th. 2 Statistical-based model Probabilities workflow in the statistical-based procedure Example-based style Translations by simply online machine translation devices Example of Web coding in a website Example of the internet page without HTML code Example of a translation workflow utilizing a translation memory system Example of an English source text Pre-translation 1 Repository model in translation memory space systems Research model in translation recollection systems.
Flowchart to demonstrate how to build a parallel a Example of a text header in a a Example of part-of-speech tagging Example of a regularite for the phrase round’ Types of tool used in a localization job Example of the translation process using a machine translation program, a translation database and a terms database Example of TMX data-sharing Example of a header in TMX Example of a body in TMX Example of a header in TBX Example of a body in TBX Example of XLIFF in the localization process Example of a header in XLIFF Example of a physique in XLIFF Example of another translation element in XLIFF Example of a glass-box evaluation. Sort of a black-box evaluation Sort of an evaluation process Standardization projects for analyzing machine translation systems EAGLES general analysis framework Future-use model of translation technology Talk technology in translation.
79 80 81 87 99 99 102 102 103 103 104 109 110 111 112 114 117 120 121 122 124 125 126 127 127 127 138 139 141 142 145 154 158 Tables 1 ) 1 3. 1 Among the a desk for explaining translation types Example of a word entry in KAMI almost eight 67. Set of Figures, Dining tables and Boxes xi 3. a couple of 3. three or more 3. 5 4. 1 4. two 4. several 4. 4 4. 5 4. 6 4. several 4. almost eight 7. you 7. a couple of 7. three or more 7. 4 7. a few 7. 6th 7. several 7. almost 8 7. on the lookout for 7. 12 7. 10 7. 12 7. 13 7. 13 7. 12-15 7. of sixteen 7. 17 7. 18 7. 19 7. twenty Imitation inside the example-based strategy Semantic likeness in the example-based approach Category of commercial machine translation devices Example of excellent matching Types of fuzzy complementing Higher and lower tolerance percentages to get fuzzy coordinating Examples of coordinating suggestions for bow’ Example of segments Example of translation units Example of English-French translation units coming from a databases Classification of economic computer-aided translating services.
Degree of motorisation Human intervention Integrated equipment Application of theory Application of theory in equipment translation devices Source-language texts Target-language text messaging Stages of the translation process Types of text Dialect dependency Types of source language Info interchange criteria in translation Translation groups and data interchange standards Levels of evaluation Methods of evaluation Features in a machine translation system Language insurance coverage in equipment translation devices Texts and computer-aided translating services. Language dependency in computer-aided translation tools Quantity of languages in computer-aided translation tools.
82 82 88 ninety five 96 ninety-seven 98 100 101 102 118 174 175 a hundred seventy five 176 177 178 one hundred and eighty 181 182 185 186 187 one-hundred and eighty-eight 189 190 191 193 194 194 195 Bins 1 . you 5. 1 A translator at work FEMTI evaluation platform 14 147 Series Editors’ Preface Modern times have witnessed momentous modifications in our study of Modern Languages, throughout the world as well as nationally. On the one hand, the rapid growth of English being a universal stato franca features rendered the command of other dialects a less compelling asset.
On the other hand, the demand for intercultural mediators which includes translators and interpreters has grown as a result of a large number of recent cultural, political and economic advancements; these include legislative changes, the emergence of supranational organisations, the ease of travel, telecommunications, business pressures raising awareness of neighborhood needs, migration and job mobility, and a heightened understanding of linguistic and human privileges. Today, linguistically oriented college students wishing to follow a career in which they are able to additional their affinity for languages and cultures would be more likely to choose vocationally relevant courses in which translation and interpreting play an essential part instead of traditional.
Contemporary Language deg. Thus the probabilities for professional work in translation and interpretation have been extended, particularly resulting from developments in technology, whether as assisting the translation process or perhaps as a means of dissemination and broadening usage of communications in lots of media. The role of translation is usually, for example , becoming more and more important in the context of recent media such as television and cinema, if for documentary or entertainment purposes.
As well as the technological choices for featuring interpreting providers, whether to the police officer around the beat or to the businessperson on a several continent, include extended the previously bodily confined nature of mediating the used word. Nearly these new vistas start opportunities pertaining to the specialist linguist, additionally, they point to expanding areas of study in Translation and Interpretation Studies. Practice and theory are of mutual benefit, especially in the case of a fairly young self-control such as Translation Studies.
Consequently, the initially aim of this course, written primarily for the MA and advanced undergraduate student, is usually to highlight modern issues and concerns to supply informed, in theory based, accounts of advancements in translation and presentation. The second target is to offer ready gain access to for students enthusiastic about the study and pursuit of Modern day Languages to xii Series Editors’ Preamble xiii professional issues that are of relevance to the modern-day world of translating and interpretation. The final goal is to provide informed updates to practising professionals about recent innovations in the field affecting on their willpower.
Linguistic, Culture and Translation Studies University of Surrey Guildford UK GUNILLA ANDERMAN MARGARET ROGERS Acknowledgements My spouse and i am indebted to three persons for their advantages. This book could have taken more time to complete if it was not for Chooi Tsien Yeo who searched background information for me personally. Words cannot express my own gratitude to Stephen Moore, in between translation deadlines, pertaining to putting his experiences like a professional translator into writing. I i am extremely delinquent to Paul Marriott to get his remarks and suggestions, particularly about helping to visualize a new way to depict the multidimensional classification of translation types in Chapter six.
I would like to acknowledge particularly the Duke University Libraries and Institute of Statistics and Decision Research at Duke University in providing myself with the environment and research facilities exactly where most of this guide was created. Also my personal thanks to the Nationwide University of Singapore Libraries, George Edward cullen Library at the University of Surrey, plus the Department of Statistics and Actuarial Research at the University of Waterloo for their support.
I would love to admit the following creators, publishers and organizations to get allowing the use of copyright material in this book: John Hutchins, Harold Somers and Elsevier (Academic Press Ltd) for the classification of translation types in Chapter one particular; Eugene Nida and the Linguistic Society of America intended for the translation process in Chapter two; John Intelligent and Wise Communications, Incorporation. for the controlled and simplified The english language samples in Chapter two; Francis Connection and Takefumi Yamazaki pertaining to the KAMI MalayEnglish dictionary entry in Chapter a few; Paolo Dongilli and Johann Gamper to get the building of a parallel ensemble in Part 4; Tony a2z Jewtushenko and Peter Reynolds of BEAUTY for XLIFF in Phase 4; Enrique de Argaez at Net World Stats for the statistical determine on the Internet population in Chapter six; Michael Carl, Reinhard Schaler, Andy Approach, Springer Research and Business Media, and Kluwer Educational Publishers to get the model of the future utilization of translation technology in Chapter 6. To Antonio Ribeiro, Tessadit Lagab, Margaret Rogers and Chooi Tsien Yeo, my the majority of sincere thanks for translating via English in to Portuguese, The french language, German and Chinese correspondingly. I am solely accountable for any translation errors that occurred.
A particular thank you visits Elsie Lee, Shaun Yeo, Angeliki Petrits, Mirko Plitt and Ashton kutcher Seng Bronze for giving an answer to some of my personal queries. xiv Acknowledgements xv. To Caroline, Elizabeth, Gillian and Lyndsay, thank you for helping out with entering in corrections on the previous drafts. Lastly, to my own sifu’ and friend Peter Newmark, a huge thank-you for those translation conversations we had during our coffeebiscuit sessions years ago. If it has not been for the series editors, Gunilla Anderman and Maggie Rogers, this guide would not had been written. I am permanently grateful to both of them for his or her feedback and comments.
Thanks to Jill Pond of Palgrave Macmillan on her patience and understanding as a result of my country-hopping’ from Southeast Asia to North America throughout the writing with this book. Waterloo, Canada CHIEW KIN QUAH List of Short-hand. ACRoTERMITE AECMA AIA ALPAC ALPS ALT-J/C ALT-J/E ALT-J/M AMTA ASCC ASD ATA BASIC BLEU BSO CAT CAT2 CANASTA CFE CIA CICC CRATER CTE CONSPIRACY DARPA DBMT DIPLOMAT DLT DTS SILVER EAGLES EARS EDIG Terminology of Telecommunications Western Association of Aerospace Companies Aerospace Industries Association of America Programmed Language Finalizing Advisory Committee Automatic Vocabulary Processing Program Automatic Dialect Translator Japanese to Oriental Automatic Language Translator Western to British Automatic.
Vocabulary Translator Japanese people to Malay Association of Machine Translation in the Americas Automatic Punctuational Checker Band AeroSpace and Defence American Translators Connection British American Scientific Foreign, Commercial Bilingual Evaluation Understudy Buro voor Systeemontwikkeling Computer-Aided Translation Constructors, Atoms and Translators Expedition d’Evaluation para Systemes de Traduction Programme Caterpillar Critical English Central Intelligence Organization Center of International Cooperation for Computerization Corpus Methods and Terms Extraction Caterpillar Technical British Chinese University or college. Language Translator Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Dialogue-based Machine Translation Allocated Intelligent Finalizing of Dialect for Functional Machine Assisted Translation Allocated Language Translation Descriptive Translation Studies Expert Advisory Group on Vocabulary Engineering Criteria Effective, Inexpensive Reusable Speech-to-Text European Protection Industries Group xvi List of Abbreviations xvii.
ELDA ELRA ENGSPAN ENIAC EURODICAUTUM EUROSPACE EUROTRA EVALDA EWG FAHQT/FAHQMT FEMTI GENETER GETA HAMT HICATS HT HTML IAMT IATE INTERSECT ISI REGION ISO JEIDA JEITA JICST-E KAMI MARGEN KGB LDC LISA LMT LTC LTRAC MAHT MANTRA MARTIF Reviews and Terminology resources Division Agency Western european Language Assets Association The english language Spanish Equipment Translation System Electronic Statistical Integrator and Computer. Western european Terminology Databases Aerospace and Protection Industries Affiliation of The european countries European Translation Infrastructure d’EVALuation a ELDA Evaluation Functioning Group Fully Automatic Top quality (Machine) Translation A Framework for the Evaluation of Machine Translation in DEPARTMENT Generic Model for Terms Groupe d’Etude pour la Traduction Programme Human-Aided/Assisted Equipment Translation Hitachi Computer Helped Translation System Human Translation HyperText Markup Language Foreign Association of Machine Translation Inter-Agency Lingo Exchange Foreign Sample of English Contrastive.
Texts Intercontinental Statistical Company International Requirements for Dialect Engineering Intercontinental Organization for Standardization Japan Electronic Sector Development Association Japan Electronic devices and Information Technology Association Asia Information Centre of Scientific research and Technology Kamus Melayu-Inggeris (Malay-English Dictionary) Knowledge-based Accurate Translation Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti Linguistic Data Consortium Localisation Industry and Standards Affiliation Logic-based Equipment. Translation Dialect Technology Hub Language Translation Resources Computerized Console Machine-Aided/Assisted Human Translation Machine Aided Translation Machine Readable Lingo Interchange Formatting xviii Set of Abbreviations MASTOR SPARRING FLOOR METAL METU MLIR MT NAATI NIST OASIS OCP OCR OLIF OS OSCAR PaTrans PAHO PDA PESO RDF RFC SALT SGML SPANAM SUSY SYSTRAN TAP TAUM TBX TEMAA TGT-1 THETOS TMF TMX TOLL TONGUES TS TTS Multi-lingual Automatic Speech-to-Speech Translator Machine-Aided/Assisted.
Translation Mechanised Translation and Analysis of Language Middle East Specialized University MultiLingual Information Collection Machine Translation National Accreditation Authority pertaining to Translators and Interpreters Limited. National Institute of Requirements and Technology Organization to get the Growth of Methodized Information Criteria Oxford Cha?ne Programme Optic Character Reputation Open Lexicon Interchange File format Operating System Open up Standards for Container/Content Enabling Re-use Obvious.
Translation Pan-American Health Corporation Personal Digital Assistant Portuguese-English Sentence Positioning Resource Explanation Framework Request Comments Standards-based Access to Lexicographical & Terminological Multilingual Assets Standard Generalised Markup Terminology Spanish American Machine Translation System Saarbrucker UbersetzungsSYstem Program Translation. Think-Aloud Protocols Traduction automatique a l’Universite de Montreal TermBase eXchange Testbed Study of Evaluation Strategies: Authoring Assists Text-into-Gesture Translator Text in to Sign Terminology Automatic Ubersetzungsprogramm for Enhance Terminological Markup Framework Translation Memory eXchange Thai Online Library Take action II Audio tracks Voice Translation Guide Devices Translation Research Theoretical Translation Studies Set of Abbreviations xix.
WebDIPLOMAT WebOnt WWW W3C XLIFF XLT XML World wide web Distributed Brilliant Processing of Language intended for Operational Equipment Aided Translation Web Ontology World Wide Web WORLD WIDE WEB Consortium XML Localisation Interchange File Format XML Representation of Lexicons and Terminologies Extensible or Comprehensive Markup Language. This page purposely left empty Introduction For over half a hundred years, the demand to get a variety of snel by several groups of end-users has empowered many types of translation tools to be produced. This is mirrored in the devices that will be discussed in this book, ranging from machine translation systems, computer-aided translating tools and translation resources.
The majority of books and articles about translation technology focusing on the development of these devices and tools have been created from the point of view of researchers and developers. Newer publications written with interpraters in mind have focused on the use of particular tools. This book is intended as an intro to translation technology for students of translation. It can also be useful to professional interpraters and those thinking about knowing about translation technology. A different approach is taken in that descriptions of particular tools are not provided, as well as the development of distinct machine translation and computer-aided translation tools and their uses happen to be discussed.
Encoding details and mathematical equations are not considered, except inside the discussion of the statistical approach to machine translation where minimal essential formulae are included. Descriptions get to allow viewers to further look into specific techniques or problems that might curiosity them, employing references offered throughout the book. It is also crucial to note that no particular procedure or design and style is deemed to be much better than any other.
Each and every one has their pros and cons. In many cases, viewers will find that examples of devices and equipment are given yet this does not claim that they are the ideal; they are merely examples to illustrate the points manufactured. 1 a couple of Translation and Technology. When researching this book, I discovered that almost all publications through the literature upon translation technology are about the development of machine translation devices, primarily regarding experimental systems developed or perhaps being produced at a number of universities and enormous commercial corporations across the globe.
The book displays that many of those systems by no means achieved their very own commercial potential and continued to be as fresh tools, while some others offered as tools for other natural-language processing applications. By contrast, not much books seems to be on computeraided equipment such as translation memory systems. As we shall see from this book, most computer-aided translating services are manufactured by commercial companies and, consequently, progress reviews on they are rarely printed in the public domain. Furthermore, to cater to several needs and demands, a device like a translation memory system comes in a large number of versions from the most basic to the most advanced.
Observations into the use of these tools are available in translator publications and occasionally as well posted on the World Wide Web (WWW). The evaluation of translation tools comes into a discipline that is wellresearched. Again we will see that most with the literature focuses on the analysis of machine translation devices. Furthermore, the extensive usage of translation tools and translation procedures involved in the localization industry are likely to be reviewed separately, supplying the impression that they are not related to translation.
These two areas are, yet , directly highly relevant to translation technology. Hence they are also included in this book. Essentially, the book contains what is experienced should be a part of order to offer an overview of translation technology. To keep the book at the presented length, the topics had been carefully chosen with some referred to in greater detail than others. In some chapters, an abbreviated historical history has been considered necessary to supply a better understanding of the subject areas discussed, particularly in the description with the development of equipment translation devices and their analysis.
However , in all of the cases, sources have been offered which readers may choose to pursue at a later time. Recommendations for further browsing are provided at the end of every section (Chapters you to 6). The 1st chapter talks about the definitions of terms referring to the utilization of computers in translation actions. Some of the conditions can be confusing to anyone who is not really acquainted with translation tools. In some instances, the same translating tools are given different names according to what they are utilized for; in other cases, a tool can be differently categorized depending on the point of view of those that have developed that tool.
Intro 3 The aim in this chapter is therefore to simplify these terminological and related matters. An alternative perspective towards the four simple translation types fully automated superior quality machine translation, human-aided equipment translation, machine-aided human translation, and human translation first recommended by Hutchins and Somers (1992) is definitely introduced to indicate current developments in translation technology. This will likely be investigated in more detail in the last chapter the place that the four translation types are reviewed pertaining to topics described in the book.
The second chapter covers technology within the larger platform of Translation Studies as being a discipline, concentrating on the relationship involving the engineering of translation technology, on the one hand, and Translation Studies including translation theory, on the other hand. The relationship between academic and professional groupings involved in translation is also evaluated. This in turn leads to a discussion with the involvement of any particular way in linguistic theories known as formalisms’ in natural-language processing especially in the style of machine translation systems.
A different perspective within the translation process involving pre- and post-editing tasks utilizing a special number of language referred to as controlled language’ is also shown. This translation process is usually described making use of the translation model proposed by simply Jakobson (1959/2000), a translation model that differs considerably from the 1 proposed by Nida (1969). The third phase gives in depth descriptions of numerous machine translation system styles also known as architectures’. The development of machine translation over several many years, its features and the several types of machine translation systems, earlier and present, are also included.
Both fresh and business systems are discussed, although the focus can be on the fresh systems. Although machine translation has been extensively researched elsewhere, an analysis is deemed to be essential for this book. It truly is felt that modern-day professional translators must be informed about machine translation systems as there is every purpose to believe, even as we shall discover in Chapter 6, that future trends in translation technology happen to be moving to integrated devices where for least a single translation instrument is along with another, ones own already the case in the the usage of equipment translation with translation storage.
The fourth chapter describes the architectures and uses of several computer-aided translation tools, such as translation memory space systems, and resources just like parallel corpora. Unlike machine translation devices, which are mainly developed by universities, most computeraided translation tools happen to be developed by commercial companies. Thus, 4 Translation and Technology information about this sort of tools is harder to get. This section will also demonstrate that computer-aided translation tools are becoming more advanced and using several operating systems, and so standards intended for data interchange’ have been developed. Three distinct standards will be described.
Now available commercial translating tools are also reviewed. In addition , this chapter shows an overview of other commercially available tools such as those used in the localization industry. The fifth chapter touches within the evaluation of translation technology. The discussion is targeted on different groups of stakeholders by research sponsors to clients. Also included in the discussion would be the different strategies of evaluation: individual, machine, and a combination of human and machine as evaluator.
The choice of technique used depends on who the evaluation is perfect for and its goal. It also depends on whether an entire tool or only several components will be evaluated. Also described in this chapter may be the general construction of analysis offered by several research teams in the USA and Europe.
The literature in evaluation focuses on the evaluation of machine translation systems either throughout the developmental stage or after the development is completed. Less info is available on the evaluation of computeraided translation tools. What is obtainable is found primarily in translation journals, magazines and news letters. The 6th chapter reveals some new developments and shows the direction through which translation technology is going, in particular about the future of machine translation devices that are right now incorporating conversation technology features.
The integration of speech technology and traditional machine translation systems permits translation not only between text messaging or between stretches of speech, although also between text and speech. This integration can be proving to get useful in various specific circumstances around the globe particularly in international relationships and control. This phase also discusses research projects in countries which might be involved in the progress translation tools pertaining to minority different languages and examines the problems experienced in expanding machine translation systems intended for languages that are less famous and not generally spoken.
Another form of technology called the Semantic Web’ that has the actual to improve the performance of certain machine translation devices is also described. Included in this section, too, happen to be issues just like linguistic dominance and translation demands on the WWW which can be already healthy diet parts of the translation industry. The book concludes simply by presenting a great expanded type of the four basic categories of translation types because suggested by simply Hutchins and Somers (1992) and launched in Section 1 . It can be concluded that the Introduction a few one-dimensional geradlinig continuum formerly proposed is no longer able to effectively reflect current developments in translation technology.
Translation tools today come in diverse versions and types with respect to the purposes for which they are created. Some are multifunctional while others remain monofunctional. An alternative way need to therefore be found to show the difficulties and multidimensional relationships involving the four translation types and the topics discussed in this book. It is not possible to put each and every subject talked about here as one diagram or figure, therefore, in order to gain an improved understanding of the way the issues will be related to the other person, they are divided into groups.
Subject areas or issues in every single group have got a common theme that links them jointly, and are provided in a series of tables. Nevertheless , it is important to keep in mind that not most topics can be presented perfectly and easily even in this way. This kind of clearly reveals the complexity and multidimensionality of translation activities in the modern technological world. At the end in the book, many Appendices showcase the various Web sites for many distinct translation tools and translation support tools such as monolingual, bilingual, trilingual and multilingual dictionaries, glossaries, thesauri and encyclopaedia. Only a selected few are listed here, and as a result the lists are generally not exhaustive.
Additionally it is important to remember that some Internet websites may not be everlasting; at the time of the writing, every single effort have been made to make certain that all sites are available. 1 Meaning of Terms In translation technology, terms widely used to describe translating tools are the following: machine translation (MT); machine-aided/assisted human translation (MAHT); human-aided/assisted machine translation (HAMT); computer-aided/assisted translation (CAT); machine-aided/assisted translation (MAT); totally automatic high-quality (machine) translation (FAHQT/FAHQMT). Distinctions between many of these terms are certainly not always very clear.
For example , computer-aided translation (CAT) is often the definition of used in Translation Studies (TS) and the localization industry (see the second element of this chapter), while the software community which develops this sort of tool prefers to call it machine-aided translation’ (MAT). As a lot more familiar term among professional translators in addition to the discipline of Translation Studies, computer-aided translation’ is used throughout the publication to represent the two computer-aided translation and machine-aided translation tools, as well as the term aided’ is chosen instead of assisted’, as as well in human-aided machine translation’ and machine-aided human translation’.
Figure 1 . 1 differentiates four types of translation relating human being and equipment involvement within a classification along a linear continuum introduced by Hutchins and Somers (1992: 148). This classification, now several years old, will become harder to sustain as more equipment become multipurpose, as we shall see in Chapters three or more, 4 and 6. On the other hand, the concept in Figure 1 . 1 is still useful as being a point of reference for classifying translation in relation to technology.
6 Meaning of Terms 7 MT KITTEN Machine Totally automated superior quality (machine) translation (FAHQT/ FAHQMT) Human-aided equipment translation (HAMT) Machine-aided man translation (MAHT) Human Man translation (HT) MT = machine translation; CAT sama dengan computer-aided translation Figure 1 . 1 Resource: Classification of translation types Hutchins and Somers (1992): 148. The original goal of machine translation was to create a fully automated high-quality machine translation that did not need any human being intervention.
By a 1952 conference, yet , Bar-Hillel reported that creating a fully automated translation system was impractical and years later continue to remained certain that a fully automatic superior quality machine translation system was essentially not possible (Bar-Hillel 1960/2003: 45). Instead, what has emerged as a substitute is machine translation, placed between FAHQT and HAMT on the entier of Figure 1 . 1 ) The main purpose of machine translation is still to generate translation instantly, but it has ceased to be required that the outcome quality is high, somewhat that it is fit-for-purpose (see Chapters 2 and 3). As for human-aided equipment translation and machine-aided individual translation, the boundary between these two areas is especially not clear.
Both classes are considered to be computer-aided translation while indicated in Figure 1 ) 1 (Tong 1994: some, 730; see also Slocum 1988; Hutchins and Somers 1992). Nevertheless , in Schadek and Moses (2001), a unique classification have been proposed wherever only machine-aided human translation is viewed as identifiable with computer-aided translation. Human-aided machine translation is considered being a separate category. The thinking behind the lovely view offered by Schadek and Moses is not difficult to understand.
By least in theory, the difference involving the two is obvious. For human-aided machine translation, the equipment is the principal translator, when in machine-aided human translation it is a individual. In practice, however , it may be fewer easy today to attract a distinguishable boundary together.
The hazy of boundaries is further more complicated once human-aided machine translation is regarded as as a subclass of equipment translation, a technique chosen by Chellamuthu (2002). Since human-aided machine translation has almost eight Translation and Technology the machine as the key translator