1 . Ethnicity Ethnicity is not a clear-cut term.
It usually describes someone’s racial or cultural qualifications but includes a whole web host of additional connotations linked to appearance, gown, food, lifestyle etc . The ethnic bulk in a particular place are, not necessarily people that have the largest amounts, but those with social and political electrical power. It is also the case that often terms describing contest are reasonably meaningless. Persons from the ‘British race’ by way of example originate from various other cultures and countries, based on how far back you find their friends and family trees. installment payments on your Prejudiced dialect Language can be used to make certain cultural groups is very much outsiders, or perhaps different from the ethnic majority.
Markedness It is assumed that immigrants, and people from cultural minorities, must fit in with the ways and customs of the cultural majority. When this occurs, the cultural identity with the majority starts to appear normal and invisible, whilst regarding the community appears, unusual, worthy of talk about and proclaimed. We often locate in the press that people’ ethnicity is only mentioned when not light. So , we all hear things such as “the murdered black teenager Steven Lawrence” even in instances where description of ethnicity is irrelevant.
Unfavorable labelling People are often classed according to their colour, contest or ethnicity. The problem with such brands is firstly that they might stop us seeing different aspects of anybody as we are focussed around the attribute the fact that label identifies. The second problem is that very generally these labeling are linked to negative stereotypes. We often realize that the most marginalized groups in our society have the largest numbers of offensive conditions to describe all of them. In addition , the media runs relatively handful of stories about those via ethnic hispanics, and those which have been included tend to reinforce the negative stereotypes by being about crime or perhaps disorder. several.
Marking Ethnic Identity Language can also be used being a powerful marker of ethnic identity. The language that we speak, and how we speak it, shows the ethnic group to which we feel we are supposed to be and claim solidarity with. British Dark English People of West Indian and African Caribbean origin in England use numerous varieties depending on where regarding they live and how long their families have been around in Britain. Individuals born in Britain generally speak a number of English as well as a variety of Jamaican Creole, generally known as Patois.
Linguistic features of Patois? Lexical things (lick (hit), kenge (weak), bex (angry)? Use of [? ] and [? ] in place of [? ] and [? ] e. g. [t? n] for [? n]#@@#@!?
Dual forms with no /s/ endsilbe (e. g. many cow)? Verbs certainly not marked for tense (walk in place of walked)? Simplified pronouns ([mi] for I, myself, my and [dem] for they, them and their)? Utilization of ‘fi’ in place of ‘to’ ahead of infinitives. Black Vernacular British In the USA, the distinct ‘languages’ of people of African American beginning disappeared hundreds of years ago.
However, a distinct selection of English, named African American Vernacular English (AAVE), has developed which will acts as a mark of racial. AAVE is quite often read in towns in the North of the states. Linguistic top features of AAVE? Absence of standard ligadura be (e. g. ‘she very nice’, ‘that my book’)?
Usage of copula end up being to sign recurring actions (‘she be at college on weekdays’)? Multiple negation (‘I don’t want none ‘)? Consonant cluster copie (‘aks rather than asks’)? Existential it (where standard The english language has ‘there’, ‘it’s a boy’ pertaining to ‘there’s a boy’) Maori English In New Zealand, it is not very clear if a Maori dialect of English basically exists.
What is certain is usually that the features the following occur more often in the presentation of Maoris than Pakeha (non-Polynesian Fresh Zealanders, generally of Western origin) Linguistic features of Maori English? Use of [? ] and [? ] in place of [? ] and [? ] elizabeth. g. [t? n] pertaining to [? n]#@@#@!? Use of language items just like kia attualmente (greeting) and kuia (old woman)?
Vernacular verb varieties (walk to get walked)? Present tense forms with /s/ ‘I recognizes you’, ‘we gets home’) 4. Social support systems Social networks may help us understand speech habits as the language and range we 2 influenced by the people all of us spend time with. You can draw a basic social network by considering the four or five people you speak to usually and sketching lines using their names to yours on a map.
In the event any of those individuals know each other independently of you, hook up them with lines (preferably of your different colour) too. Then add all their two or three close friends, and so on. electronic. g. Tom Richard Frank Barbara Exotic Dave Highlights of social networks Density Density refers to whether members of a person’s network will be in touch with the other person separately. Inside the example previously mentioned, only Rich and Frank know the other person independently of Tom so his network is not really a dense one particular. Plexity Plexity refers to the kind of transactions that people are involved in to people.
If perhaps, for example , Tom only ever before plays corn with Barbara, the relationship would be considered a uniplex 1. If however, Jeff and Barbara lived, worked well and socialised together it will be a multiplex one. Vocabulary and Sites The language or perhaps variety we use is motivated by the persons we speak to and that which we talk to them about. We may change the dialect or variety we are using depending on which in turn part of each of our network were currently getting together with. For example , we may be more formal at work than at home. This type of language/variety move is probably more likely if each of our social network can be not very thick and the relations tend to be uniplex.
If each of our networks happen to be dense and multiplex, the entire network is likely to use the utilization the same vocabulary or variety.