Introduction Most hotels at Éxito Falls possess for decades prided themselves over a culture of serving leisurely, gourmet dishes (especially dinners) prepared applying local ingredients including a various game various meats (e. g. buffalo, kudu, impala, warthog, crocodile, guinea fowl), local mushrooms and vegetable types, and? sh from the close by Zambezi Lake. Arguably, a signi? cant proportion with this food quali? es being called ‘slow food’, because it meets the four conditions for slowlness (Rothermel, 2009). First, slow food must be freshly well prepared from clean ingredients, mainly vegetables, fruit and whole grains, and meats in tiny portions.
Second, the food must be consumed leisurely in company. Third, it must be basic but varied in flavor. Finally, it must be produced in a great ethical and environmentally friendly method. However , lately, fast food restaurants, led by Innscor brands such as Chicken Inn, Creamy Inn, etc, have begun penetrating industry. Indeed the expansion of fast food restaurants in the last ten years can be noticed in several Photography equipment countries.
In S. africa, international stores such as APPLEBEES and McDonald’s are becoming practically ubiquitous.
Quick growth of junk food restaurant organizations has become a global phenomenon (Berta, 2003; Doherty and vehicle Warner, 1995; Emerson, 80; King, 2004; Lan and Khan, 95; Parsa and Khan, 1989; Soeder, year 1994; Walkup, 08; Willging, 2008). In the hotel town of Victoria Falls, most tourists have typically opted to enjoy at the hotels where they will lodge. Nevertheless , with recent entrance of fast food restaurants, hoteliers, facing the threat of losing market share, have been completely responding to the changing competitive forces. Éxito Falls has changed into a ‘slow foodstuff versus fast food’ arena.
The main aim of this conventional paper is to check out how the modern-day slow food” fast food contention is passed in an Africa tourist vacation spot setting. An essential point to make is that not necessarily suggested right here that Victoria Falls resorts serve gradual food specifically. Indeed, most hotels inside the resort, moreover to what might qualify as slow food, also provide items which could be labelled while fast food, including Corresponding writer: Muchazondida Mkono, School of Tourism and Hospitality Managing, Southern Cross University, L. O.
Container 157, Lismore, New South Wales 2480, Australia Email: [emailprotected] edu. au, [emailprotected] Downloaded by thr. sagepub. com in the Hong Kong Polytechnic University upon March 14, 2013 148 burgers, french fries, and so on, commonly as part of all their ‘still room’ menus to get lunches and snacks. As well hotels for Victoria Falls have always approved that the majority of their very own guests your time day commencing a range of ‘tourist activities’ away from the resort (for example elephant driving, over-the is catagorized helicopter? ights, bungee jumping, video game safaris, river rafting) and can often? nd a quick snack food elsewhere, or perhaps be provided with drinks by tour operators offering these activities.
Breakfast time is generally consumed at the resort, as most lodge rates are charged about bed and breakfast basis. Thus the true contention regarding the tourist’s range of either fast food or gradual food can be centred about dinner. Tourism and Food Research 12(3) Warner, 1995; Emerson, 1980; Lan and Khan, 1995; Parsa and Khan, 1989; Soeder, 1994; Willging, 2008). Research has mainly focused on the impacts with this trend (Allen et approach., 2007; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1995; Blanck et ing., 2009; Bowens, 1994;
Chandon and Wansink, 2007; Chaudhry, 1992; Crowley, 2002; Dundes and Swann, 2008; Fitch et ‘s., 2009; Grazin and Olsen, 1997; Gregory et al., 2006; Hawkes, 2003; Hodges, 2003; Parker et ‘s., 2006; Rubin, 1996; Schreiner, 2007; Thornton et approach., 2009; Xu et al., 2011), with the majority of writers corroborating the view that take out poses signi? cant health hazards. As such Slower Food Movement enthusiasts counsel a return to slow meals habits. Simultaneously, there is a growing health conscious, marketplace (Bartlett and Bartlett, 1995; Gray, 2004; Grazin and Olsen, 97; Jonsdottir, 1998; Hwang and Cranage, 2010). In response to the trend, many hoteliers location their choices as healthier and healthy.
A tightly related controversy to quickly food”slow meals discourse relates to the genuineness of choices. Authenticity is actually a central topic in travel and leisure sociological debates, and lso are? ects research online for the Authentic Various other in visitors (Beer, 08; Chhabra, 2010; Cohen, 2007; Connell, 2007; Connell and Gibson, 2005; Daniel, 1996; Johnson, 2002; Wang, 99; Warner, 2009; Wherry, 2006; White, 3 years ago; Xie, the year 2003; Yang and Wall, 2009; Yu and Littrell, 2003; Zheng, 2011).
Slow foodstuff, with its make use of local elements and classic cooking methods, has a stronger claim to genuineness, while fast food can easily be rebuked as deauthenti? cation and MacDonaldisation of cuisine ethnicities; as Americanisation of classic food civilizations. A noticeable distance in the literary works with respect to take out chain growth relates to the impacts on hotel meals and refreshment sales and pro? ts, as well as just how (slow food) hotels have reacted to the trend to safeguard their market share.
For African tourist destinations, accommodations have long been a significant part of the destination’s ‘authentic’ photo, and the MacDonaldisation of the meals culture in these areas may well destabilise the required image. The impacts consequently are far-reaching.
Literature assessment While the idea of slow foodstuff has been received with a large amount of interest among academics (Emerson, 1980; Gardner, 2007; Hodges, 2003; Jennings, 2006; Paxson, 2005; Serenity, 2008; Piggott, 2001; Sassatelli and Davolio; Schwaner-Albright, 2007; Scoffer, 08; Vaughan, 08; Walkup, 08; Waterhouse, 2008; Waters, 2006; Wong, 2009; Wright, 2007; Yee, 1999; Zuber, 2002), existing research has so far not really looked at how resort hotels offering what could be identified as ‘slow? eine dining’ had been impacted by the expansion of fast food stores in The african continent.
Further, most research about fast food and slow foodstuff has been carried out in American and Parts of asia. African circumstance studies happen to be noticeably deficient (Emerson, 80; King, 2004; Lan and Khan, 1995; Parsa and Khan, 1989; Soeder, year 1994; Walkup, 2008; Willging, 2008). The concept of ‘slow food’ was borne from the Slow Meals Movement, founded in V?ldigt bra, Italy, in 1986 by Carlo Petrini (Jones et ‘s., 2003; Petrini, 2001). The movement aims at safeguarding food and agricultural heritage around the world, and training consumers about traditional foods (Nosi and Zanni, 2004).
Formed to counteract the rapid globalisation of a take out culture, the movement has evolved from as being a protest resistant to the erection of the McDonald’s restaurant in an Italian town to a formidable intercontinental organisation that has enthusiasts across the world (Jones ain al., 2003). Interest in slow food is growing parallel to increasing critique of junk food, although some experts question the movement’s ef? cacy in challenging the seemingly ‘all powerful’ take out industry (Jones et approach., 2003).
Fast food, according to Rothermel (2009), typically bland, chewy, pathetic, crunchy, saline, meaty, crazy, fatty, and frequently spicy, captivates the colour pallette quickly, repetitiously, and obsessively. As such, fast food is consumed by a growing population, especially in created countries (Doherty and van Methodology The aim of this research is to offer an exploratory, initiatory analysis from the slow food”fast food contention as it provides unfolded in recent times at the holiday destination of Victoria Declines.
As a kick off point for future research, the analysis highlights the perspectives of hoteliers, speci? cally foodstuff and beverage managers. The philosophical strategy adopted for this study was hermeneutic (interpretive) phenomenology, and this is a research method (LeVasseur, 2003; Lopez and Downloaded coming from thr. sagepub. com on the Hong Kong Polytechnic University about March 16, 2013 Mkono Willis, 2005; Wojnar and Swanson, 2007).
The procedure was adopted to make impression out of a local scenario by providing a thick information (Denzin and Lincoln, 1994). The localized focus led to small-scale hypotheses that are located in speci? c personal activities and awareness (Riley and Love, 2000). The daily news employs a very re?
exive and multivocal methodology where no single words is priviledged (Riley and Love, 2000). Hermeneutic phenomenology is a specifically appropriate method for capturing very subjective perspectives and lived experience (Hegel, 1977; Ingram, 2002; Ironside et al., the year 2003; Jonsdottir, 98; Knibbe and Versteeg, 08; LeVasseur, the year 2003; Lopez and Willis, 2005; Murphy et al., 2009; Pernecky and Jamal, 2010; Racher and Robinson, the year 2003; Ross ou al., 3 years ago; Sherrod, 06\; Simpson, 3 years ago; Sinico, 08; Szarycz, 2009; Wilde, 2003; Wojnar and Swanson, 2007). However , only a few hospitality researchers have implemented this technique (Ingram, 2002).
Hermeneutic phenomenology accepts that both the specialist and participants cocreate a knowledge of the phenomena under research, while taking into the research their own casings of references drawing off their different backgrounds (Wojnar and Swanson, 2007). Research workers under this kind of orientation is going to therefore frequently attempt to acknowledge whatever biases they generated within the study, through a process of ‘bracketing’ (LeVasseur, 2003), explaining ‘where they are approaching from’. As a result, the researcher here appreciates her personal previous work experience in the hotel industry in Victoria Declines as signi? cantly shaping her framework of guide throughout the examine.
As Lopez and Willis (2004) claim, in the interpretive phenomenological strategy, the researcher’s presuppositions or perhaps previous knowledge are important guides towards the analysis, and may make the query more important. Wojnar and Swanson (2007) explain that hermeneutic phenomenology is most useful where the aim is to explicate contextual top features of a resided experience while derived from the researcher’s and participants’ backgrounds, as well as their subjective experience and views.
However , the researcher is not absolved of the responsibility to minimise, or if possible whatsoever, eliminating personal biases through the? ndings with the study. It is often very dif? cult to get researchers to demarcate among bias and fact, because bias can be extremely subtle. Info were accumulated from 11 hotel food and beverage managers. Meals and refreshment managers will be the hands-on foodstuff and refreshment operations decision makers whom are immediately responsible for the day to day time and long run strategy of a hotel’s meals and drink operations.
Naturally , other managers in the resort, such as cafe managers, executive chefs, 149 guest relations managers and functions managers may also suggestions into the food and refreshment operations. The researcher nevertheless felt their particular input was minimal in addition to most cases, engaged more strategy implementation rather than strategy formula. Thus food and refreshment managers, while primary strategists in the food and beverage department, were identi? ed as the important thing informants in the hotels. Away of a judgement sample of 18 hotel managers in 18 accommodations (2 to five star) who were contacted simply by phone and asked if they were readily available for an interview, 16 agreed and appointments were set up.
Nevertheless , only eleven were consequently interviewed. The other a few could not acquire themselves giving various factors including crisis meetings or perhaps busy plans. The investigator used a job interview guide to keep focus in the interviews. Queries were extremely open finished allowing interviewees to air flow their opinions freely. The study revolved surrounding the two main research concerns: the degree of menace posed by the emerging take out competition (if any), and hotel administration reactions. All interviews were tape noted and transcribed manually, verbatim.
Data examination was performed manually, through several phases, drawing by Benner’s (1994) hermeneutical examination model delineated in Wojnar and Swanson (2007). The method began with reading and rereading transcripts reread to find an user-friendly feel pertaining to the data. Subsequent, repetitious themes were identi? ed. The researcher in that case identi? education exemplary quotations to illustrate themes. Conclusions and dialogue The level of threat The majority of managers felt that fast food firms were becoming serious competition for resort restaurants: “It’s become a slight war really.
We have our appeal, but fast food restaurants have “street” appeal. We offer? ne eating. Both ideas have their charm, I guess. ” The ‘war’ referred to previously mentioned is not unique to Zimbabwe. Cafe wars have occurred in other places where fast food restaurants have entered the markets swiftly (e. g. Watson and Caldwell, 2004). Some managers reported that some of their friends were utilizing their shuttle busses to ‘sneak out for a burger supper at an easy food restaurant in town’. In addition , and more worrying pertaining to the motel industry in Victoria Declines, hotel meals and beverage sales had been reported to have been decreased signi? cantly due to take out entrance.
It was a great concern as managers Downloaded via thr. sagepub. com at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University about March 16, 2013 a hundred and fifty reported the negative final conclusion impact of fast food restaurant expansion. Nevertheless , others were con? damage of the competitive strengths with their hotel restaurants, perceiving not any real risk from junk food. “I believe tourists in our hotel opt to taste the full assistance men. It’s gourmet. Quickly to me is definitely bland and ordinary. As well as unhealthy. The food can be prepared by top notch chefs. ”
Tourism and Hospitality Analysis 12(3) river rafting for the Zambezi Riv, elephant again safaris, and thus on) may not be consistent with a slow destination image, or a slow visitor segment. One other interesting brief review made concerned the in? uence old in inclination for take out: “It seems to me that it can be our youthful guests who might be particularly interested in fast food. The older folks are delay by the noise in the take out places”. The health implications with regards to fast food and slow food have been extensively discussed (Hodges, 2003; Look, 2004; Mair et ‘s., 2008; Wong, 2009).
Without a doubt this could be the biggest selling point to get hotel foodstuff over foodstuff in this circumstance, especially if the marketplace is predominantly health-conscious. This requires even more inquiry. One of many managers experienced that hotels’ competitive power with respect to foodstuff and drink was in the uniqueness and authenticity of their menus: “We sell repas that they can’t get somewhere else, our kudu and impala steak, for example. Our dishes is authentic Zimbabweanness. We bring out the very best of Zimbabwean and African food.
” Future exploration could look into further the validity of the observation in more causal, quantitative research. Nevertheless , some existing research would suggest that more youthful people often prefer junk food compared to seniors (Dave ainsi que al., 2009). One director drew focus on the attention paid to ambience in hotel restaurants, arguing that this is a crucial source of difference from fast food restaurants: “Our hotel restaurants have a unique ambience which usually fast food restaurants simply cannot provide”.
Authenticity is actually a core concept in travel research, in fact it is signi? can’t that hotel managers are engaged with this discourse in their re? ection of work lived encounters. But to ascribe Zimbabweanness lends to us to the complex questions of who authenticates food as Zimbabwean or else, what requirements must be used, and therefore to the queries of identification and, for a multiethnic society that Zimbabwe is, racial as well. Certainly, ethnicity has become a source of socio-cultural tension to find representing Zimbabwean identity.
Nevertheless , this point constitutes a highly convoluted debate that cannot be cured in more depth in an exploratory study similar to this one. 1 manager felt that Éxito Falls was a destination for the ‘slow’ holiday, who recommended ‘slow’ products, so that there were no genuine threat for hoteliers posed by the entrance of junk food. The slow food”fast meals contention is actually a topical a significant contemporary hospitality management mainly because it resonates using a nostalgic longing for the past in modern society. “I think Victoria Falls appeals to more ‘slow oriented’ travelers, I think.
” The function ambience in in? uencing customer satisfaction can be widely accepted. However a lot of fast food eating places have made a few strides in managing the atmosphere in their restaurants. For instance , the Jungle Cafe chain’s restaurant interiors depict a tropical jungle with depth such as herb growth, mist, waterfalls, animatronic robots of various animals and insects (Williams, 2002). As a result hoteliers simply cannot become complacent about their restaurant ambience since sustainable sources of competitive advantage over their very own fast food restaurant competition.
The researcher asked whether the cheaper prices linked to fast food was obviously a concern for hoteliers. Some managers agreed that value was in fact the major method to obtain competition: “The trouble is a burger at a fast foodstuff restaurants costs little, state three of four dollars. Our dinners expense them $30 dollars thereabouts. So in case the decision is an economic a single, especially exactly where it’s a big family, the fast food cafe is an inviting option. ” Slowness is a competitive phenomenon, in fact it is not clear lower what comprises slow.
Further more, it is doubtful whether Victoria Falls should indeed be a place to go for slow travelers. Indeed, the experience oriented activities that Éxito Falls is commonly known for (bungee jumping, helicopter? ights more than Falls, cruise trips and However , some felt that there is no common sense in evaluating hotel food prices with fast food prices; that this would be similar to comparing ‘oranges with bread’. It is clear then that hoteliers have varying belief of who have their competition are: if competition identifies other hoteliers, or whether it extends beyond the hotel market.
De? ning competition directly, however , may very well be detrimental to a hotel’s long term competitive strength. Downloaded via thr. sagepub. com on the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in March 14, 2013 Mkono It was also highlighted simply by some managers that their very own clientele was ‘upmarket’ and therefore not very pricesensitive: “Most of the guests happen to be internationals…. and price is not their primary criterion for choosing where they are gonna consume. They do not travel around on a limited budget”. 151 Victoria Comes.
Hotels would have to think on a longer term basis if their strategies should safeguard them through the competitive risk effectively. One particular manager indicated apprehension about the potential ef? cacy of any potential reactive strategies, citing that tourists via countries where fast food usage has become historical in way of life “can’t resist a dairy products burger”. As a result to some extent, with this manager’s watch, the conflict was already misplaced. Since for some managers the true competition was lay inside the differences in prices, it was not surprising that resorts were expected to bring down their prices.
Without a doubt, this acquired already been required for some accommodations: “We had to bring the prices down a little bit”. Hoteliers would have to address the question whether they plan to target the particular upmarket, or perhaps whether their very own target market can be de? ned more generally. Considering that the government’s Appearance East Insurance plan launched in the early 2000s has captivated a lower spending, more price-sensitive Eastern industry, limiting the point market to af? uent high spenders might not be especially wise like a marketing strategy. Accommodations therefore?
nd themselves within a crossroads decision regarding if it makes more organization sense to create their rates down to be competitive in the face of fast food cafe penetration, and accept any kind of compromises this may bring to customers’ perceptions of their product and service top quality; or to retain their price levels as they are in the hope that the lures a more high spending, perhaps elitist market. A particularly important point was the reference to health conscious tourists.
It was the belief of some managers which a signi? cannot proportion of tourists was becoming increasingly health-conscious, and was therefore likely to avoid consuming fast food: “Our guests in general are becoming very health conscious. They ask for low fat, sugar free of charge etc . They will ask if our menu is organic and natural. They find out they can’t get healthy options in the fast food cafe. That’s a truth. ” However , some managers were worried about the effect of price slashes on their graphic. There was tension that visitors could assume that this was with a reduction in merchandise and/ or service quality.
The relationship among price and quality has become investigated in numerous marketing research, suggesting that customers perceptions of quality are indeed affected by price. The theme of graphic for some extended beyond someone hotel. The image of Victoria Falls as a tourist vacation spot was known as impacted by the expansion of fast food supply. One of the respondents asserted that this would bargain the ‘luxury resort’ manufacturer image that Victoria Comes held internationally: “Victoria can be described as high end industry destination. We could about luxury hotels, class. Zero offence to fast food restaurants. ”
Bottom line and suggested future exploration Hotel reactions Most managers believed which the competitive risk posed pertaining to hotels by expansion with the fast food sector in Éxito Falls was serious enough to bring about reformulation of competitive strategies. Among the changes that hotels needed to generate was to modify shuttle buses’ routes so that they would not pass through fast food restaurant locations: “We might have to replace the route intended for our shuttle. The current grab points are generally not good for see all since fast food shops are gazing at our customer right there in which they get picked up.
” However , this kind of a change are unable to offer a long term solutions as tourists are generally not necessarily limited to the use of hotels’ shuttle buses for transport within The study sought to review hotel foodstuff and beverage managers’ encounters with and perspectives of emerging take out competition. Consequently, the newspaper adds to a growing number of phenomenological research in hospitality. Managers’ views re? ect several interesting issues. Many of the responses suggest a signi? cant amount of complacency, a refusal to accord fast food the position of powerful competitor.
Several managers apparently think this ‘beneath them’ to actually worry about take out, and even more ‘beneath’ to engage within a ‘face-off ‘ with them. The more ‘digni? ed’ alternative seems to be to pretend that fast food eating places either will not exist at all, or to feign indifference. This kind of begs problem whether this kind of attitude is usually sustainable in the long run. The study likewise con? rms the powerful and unstable nature in the tourist market. In an Photography equipment destination Downloaded from thr. sagepub. com at The Hong Kong Polytechnic School on March 14, 2013.
152 in which fast food usage has been a once-in-awhile affair, the entrance of fast food is defined to rede? ne meals and consuming culture. It can be no longer a Western sensation. What is also important to realise is the fact fast food usage is certainly not restricted to the tourist market; that people are also a part of the market. Future researchers might investigate the impacts of fast food development on the community population’s food culture, that will further example knowledge within the so called MacDonalisation of world. Hotels might have to start definitely targeting ‘slow tourists’.
However , research around the characteristics and means of engaging this possibly growing marketplace segment continues to be lacking. It can be hoped that more African context-speci? c studies will be performed on the development of junk food and its organization and sociological impacts. A natural limitation correspondant to phenomenology is the insufficient generalisability of research? ndings. Owing to the small sample, the perspectives showed here are not representative of any other context, however some may be ‘transferable’ to related resort locations where take out chains are beginning to enter markets which have previously been dominated by accommodations.
Future experts might want to engage in similar research with a larger sample of informants, and possibly on a wider spatial scale. Such research could use quantitative methods to explain origin relationships and test speculation, such as if fast food entrance into a classic hotel dominated market postures signi? cant threats to hotel food and drink pro? ts. To complete the supply aspect perspective in this study, take out managers also need to be included in data collection in future views.
It would be interesting to investigate for what reason fast food restaurants have decided to expand into the Victoria Declines now, how they perceive the competition from hotels, how they have tried to gain market share, and their views on slower food”fast meals debate in an environment wherever fast food continues to be criticised as unhealthy. How are they building their protection against this onslaught? How do that they continue to thrive despite this worldwide onslaught? And what will be a lot more interesting would be to compare the? ndings made in an African context with those found in other, most likely very different situations.
This analysis took a supply area bias, and therefore fails to catch the viewpoints of tourists who in fact make the choice among fast food and slow food. Thus foreseeable future researchers may want to pursue either a market focused approach, or better yet a great integrative way, which combines both supply side and consumer points of views. In addition , upcoming researchers whom carry out comparable studies in tourist destinations Travel and Food Research 12(3) could utilise the wider concept of ‘slow tourism’ as an synthetic framework.
Thus food decision and usage are not looked at simply because acts in dining, nevertheless perhaps like a microcosm of any much more sophisticated ‘slow tourism’ phenomenon.
References Allen KN, Taylor JS and Kuiper R (2007) Effectiveness of nutrition education on junk food choices in adolescents. The Journal of School Nursing 23(6): 337″341. Bartlett M and Bartlett M (1995) Turning points or perhaps wrong transforms? Restaurants & Institutions 105: 12. Dark beer S (2008) Authenticity and food experience- commercial and academic perspectives. Journal of Foodservice 19(3): 153″163.
Benner P (1994) Hermeneutic phenomenology: a methodology to a family event health and advertising study in nursing. In: Benner S (ed. ) Interpretive Phenomenology: Embodiment, Patient, and Values in Health and Illness. Cal: Sage, pp. 71″72. Berta D (2003) Arctic Circle fast food involves hot-growth Utah suburb. Place’s Restaurant Reports 37(12): 70. Blanck HM, Yaroch ING, Atienza SOCIAL MEDIA PACKAGE, et approach. (2009) Elements influencing lunch food alternatives among operating Americans. Overall health Education & Behavior 36(2): 289″301. Bowens J (1994) Fat single profiles of your favourite fast-food cafe: how do they measure up to recommended guidelines?
Journal of Nutrition in Recipe & Menu Advancement 1: 47. Chandon S and Wansink B (2007) The biasing health aura of fastfood restaurant wellness claims: reduced calorie estimates and larger side-dish ingestion intentions. Log of Consumer Research thirty four: 301″314. Chaudhry R (1992) Fast-food seafoods chains offer health, variety. Restaurants & Institutions 102: 12. Chhabra D (2010) Back to the past: a sub-segment of Technology Y’s awareness of genuineness. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18(6): 793″809.? Cohen E (2007) Authenticity’ in tourism studies: Apres la Combat. Tourism Excitement Research 32(2): 75″82.
Connell J (2007) The continuity of custom? Tourist awareness of genuineness in Yakel Village, Tanna, Vanuatu. Log of Travel & Ethnic Change 5(2): 71″86. Connell J and Gibson C (2004) Universe music: deterritorializing place and identity. Improvement in Human being Geography 28(3): 342″361. Crowley D (2002) A promise is a promise. Club Industry (07478283) 18(8): 12. Daniel YP (1996) Tourism dance performances: genuineness and creativity. Annals of Tourism Study 23: 780. Dave JM, An LC, Jeffery RW, et ‘s. (2009) Human relationships of thinking toward prêt à manger intake in adults. Obesity 17(6): 1164″1170.
Doherty J and van Warner R (1995) Casual themers beware: fast food has regained its competitive edge. Place’s Restaurant Information, p. nineteen. Available at: http://ezproxy. scu. edu. au/login? url? http:// search. ebscohost. com/login. aspx? direct? true&db? hjh&AN? 9502064211&sit? ehost-live. Dundes M and Swann T (2008) Food safety in take out restaurants. Log of Recruiting in Hospitality & Travel 7(2): 153″161. Emerson RL (1980) Growth abroad: a solution to fast food’s slow growth? Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Operations Quarterly 21(3): 24. Fitch RC, Harnack LJ, Neumark-Sztainer DR, ainsi que al.
(2009) Providing calorie information on prêt à manger restaurant menu boards: consumer views. American Journal of Health Campaign 24: 129″132. Downloaded coming from thr. sagepub. com at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University on March 13, 2013 Mkono Gardner T (2007) Slow changes in take out. Foodservice & Hospitality 39(12): 33″36. Greyish MT (2004) Philosophical inquiry in nursing: an argument for radical empiricism as a philosophical framework to get the phenomenology of craving. Qualitative Overall health Research 14(8): 1151″1164. Grazin KL and Olsen U (1997) Marketplace segmentation for fast-food restaurants in an age of well being consciousness.
Journal of Restaurant & Foodservice Marketing a couple of: 1 . Gregory S, McTyre C and DiPietro RB (2006) Junk food to healthy food: a paradigm shift. Foreign Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Operations 7(4): 43″64. Hawkes C (2003) Weighty issue: meals industry weighs down Americans with freedom of choice. Country’s Restaurant News 37(6): forty-four. Hegel G (1977) Phenomenology of Soul. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hodges T (2003) Brandwatch: in praise of slow meals. Locum Vacation spot Review. p. 26. Hunt G (2004) Rough ride slow meals. Food Manufacture 79(9): 139″139.
Ingram G (2002) Inspirations for farmville farm tourism owners and friends in the The west Tapestry Location, Western Down under: a phenomenological study. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 2(1): 1″12. Ironside PM, Scheckel M, Wessels C, ain al. (2003) Experiencing long-term illness: cocreating new understandings. Qualitative Overall health Research 13(2): 171″183. Jennings L (2006) Andre Batallador slows down take out at hottest restaurant. Nation’s Restaurant Information 40: 32″32. Johnson M (2002) Liberalism and the politics of ethnic authenticity. Governmental policies, Philosophy & Economics 1(2): 213″236.
Jonsdottir H (1998) Life patterns of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: isolation and being closed in. Nursing Science Quarterly 11(4): 160″166. Hwang JJ and Cranage Deb (2010) Buyer health perceptions of picked fast-food restaurants according to their nutritional expertise and well being consciousness. Diary of Foodservice Business Study 13(2): 68″84. King S (2004) Orion food devices: fast food, quick growth”globally. Nation’s Restaurant News 38(42): 34″34. Knibbe T and Versteeg P (2008) Assessing phenomenology in anthropology. Critique of Anthropology 28(1): 47″62. Local area network L and Khan MOTHER (1995) Hong Kong’s prêt à manger industry.
Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 36(3): 34″41. LeVasseur JJ (2003) The problem of bracketing in phenomenology. Qualitative Health Research 13(3): 408″420. Lopez KA and Willis DG (2004) Descriptive vs . interpretive phenomenology: their input to nursing jobs knowledge. Qualitative Health Research 14(5): 726″735. Mair L, Sumner L and Rotteau L (2008) The national politics of ingesting: food procedures as vitally reflexive leisure. Leisure/Loisir: Journal of the Canadian Association pertaining to Leisure Research 32(2): 379″405. Murphy SB, Moynihan LOGISTIK and Banyard VL (2009) Moving within the spiral. Affilia 24(2): 152″164.
Parker RS, Schaefer AD and Hermans CM (2006) An investigation into teens’ thinking towards prêt à manger brands on the whole: a crosscultural analysis. Record of Foodservice Business Analysis 9(4): 25″40. Parsa HG and Khan MA (1989) Analysis of menu styles in junk food industry. Diary of Food & Travel and leisure Research 13(3): 545. Paxson H (2005) Slow foodstuff in a excess fat society. Gastronomica 5(1): 14″18. Peace A (2008) Terra Madre 2006. Gastronomica 8(2): 31″39. 153 Pernecky Big t and Jamal T (2010) (Hermeneutic) Phenomenology in tourism studies. Annals of Travel and leisure Research 37(4): 1055″1075. Piggott S (2001) Go sluggish.