Slow Food Versus Fast Food Essay

Category: Foodstuff,
Published: 27.12.2019 | Words: 5041 | Views: 418
Download now

Intro Most accommodations at Exito Falls have got for decades prided themselves on a culture of serving leisurely, gourmet meals (especially dinners) prepared applying local ingredients including a number of game meat (e. g. buffalo, kudu, impala, warthog, crocodile, guinea fowl), local mushrooms and vegetable types, and? sh from the local Zambezi Water. Arguably, a signi? cant proportion of the food quali? es to be called ‘slow food’, since it meets the four criteria for slowlness (Rothermel, 2009). First, gradual food has to be freshly prepared from clean ingredients, generally vegetables, fruits and whole grains, and various meats in little portions. Second, the food should be eaten unhurried in business.

Third, it must be simple nevertheless varied in taste. Finally, it must be manufactured in an moral and eco-friendly manner. Yet , in recent years, fast food restaurants, led by Innscor brands including Chicken Resort, Creamy Resort, and so on, possess begun going through the market.

Need help writing essays?
Free Essays
For only $5.90/page

Indeed the growth of junk food chains in the last decade could be observed in several African countries. In South Africa, international restaurants such as KFC and McDonald’s are becoming virtually ubiquitous. Speedy growth of take out restaurant restaurants has become a global phenomenon (Berta, 2003; Doherty and vehicle Warner, 95; Emerson, 80; King, 2005; Lan and Khan, 95; Parsa and Khan, 1989; Soeder, 1994; Walkup, 08; Willging, 2008). In the hotel town of Victoria Falls, most visitors have customarily opted to eat at the resorts where they lodge.

Yet , with new entrance of fast food organizations, hoteliers, facing the danger of burning off market share, have been completely responding to the changing competitive forces. Exito Falls has turned into a ‘slow food versus fast food’ arena. The main aim of this daily news is to explore how the modern slow food– fast food a contentious is passed in an Photography equipment tourist vacation spot setting. A significant point to generate is that it is not necessarily suggested in this article that Exito Falls resorts serve sluggish food specifically.

Indeed, most hotels inside the resort, additionally to what will qualify since slow meals, also provide items which could possibly be labelled as fast food, such as Corresponding publisher: Muchazondida Mkono, School of Tourism and Hospitality Administration, Southern Cross University, P. O. Breakfast is generally consumed at the motel, as most lodge rates are charged in bed and breakfast basis. Thus the actual contention regarding the tourist’s choice of either fast food or sluggish food is definitely centred about dinner. Tourism and Food Research 12(3) Warner, 95; Emerson, 1980; Lan and Khan, 95; Parsa and Khan, 1989; Soeder, year 1994; Willging, 2008).

Research has primarily focused on the impacts with this trend (Allen et al., 2007; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1995; Blanck et ing., 2009; Bowens, 1994; Chandon and Wansink, 2007; Chaudhry, 1992; Crowley, 2002; Dundes and Swann, 2008; Fitch et al., 2009; Grazin and Olsen, 1997; Gregory et ‘s., 2006; Hawkes, 2003; Hodges, 2003; Parker et al., 2006; Rubin, 1996; Schreiner, 2007; Thornton et ‘s., 2009; Xu et ‘s., 2011), while using majority of writers corroborating the view that take out poses signi? cant health risks. As such Slower Food Activity enthusiasts endorse a return to slow foodstuff habits. Concurrently, there is a growing health conscious, marketplace (Bartlett and Bartlett, 95; Gray, 2004; Grazin and Olsen, 97; Jonsdottir, 1998; Hwang and Cranage, 2010).

In response to this trend, various hoteliers situation their menus as healthier and nutritious. A closely related issue to quickly food–slow meals discourse pertains to the genuineness of food selection. Authenticity is a central theme in travel and leisure sociological arguments, and re? ects research online for the Authentic Different in travelers (Beer, 2008; Chhabra, 2010; Cohen, 3 years ago; Connell, 2007; Connell and Gibson, 2005; Daniel, mil novecentos e noventa e seis; Johnson, 2002; Wang, 99; Warner, 2009; Wherry, 06\; White, 2007; Xie, the year 2003; Yang and Wall, 2009; Yu and Littrell, the year 2003; Zheng, 2011).

Slow food, with its usage of local substances and classic cooking methods, has a more powerful claim to authenticity, while junk food can easily be rebuked as deauthenti? cation and MacDonaldisation of cuisine cultures; as Americanisation of classic food ethnicities. A noticeable space in the books with respect to fast food chain development relates to the impacts on hotel meals and refreshment sales and pro? ts, as well as how (slow food) hotels include reacted to the trend to safeguard their market share. For Africa tourist destinations, resorts have long been a crucial part of the destination’s ‘authentic’ picture, and the MacDonaldisation of the meals culture during these areas might destabilise the specified image.

The impacts therefore are far-reaching. Literature review While the idea of slow meals has been received with a wide range of interest amongst academics (Emerson, 1980; Gardner, 2007; Hodges, 2003; Jennings, 2006; Paxson, 2005; Tranquility, 2008; Piggott, 2001; Sassatelli and Davolio; Schwaner-Albright, 3 years ago; Scoffer, 2008; Vaughan, 2008; Walkup, 08; Waterhouse, 08; Waters, 06\; Wong, 2009; Wright, 3 years ago; Yee, 99; Zuber, 2002), existing research has so far certainly not looked at just how resort hotels offering might be identified as ‘slow? nenni dining’ have been completely impacted by the expansion of fast food restaurants in The african continent. Further, most research in fast food and slow foodstuff has been done in Western and Asian countries.

African circumstance studies will be noticeably missing (Emerson, 1980; King, 2005; Lan and Khan, 1995; Parsa and Khan, 1989; Soeder, year 1994; Walkup, 08; Willging, 2008). The concept of ‘slow food’ was borne out of your Slow Food Movement, founded in Bra, Italy, in year 1986 by Carlo Petrini (Jones et ‘s., 2003; Petrini, 2001). The movement is aimed at safeguarding foodstuff and gardening heritage all over the world, and educating consumers regarding traditional food (Nosi and Zanni, 2004).

Formed to counteract the rapid globalisation of a take out culture, the movement has become incredible from becoming a protest up against the erection of any McDonald’s cafe in an Italian town to a formidable foreign organisation which includes enthusiasts across the world (Jones ou al., 2003). Interest in gradual food has exploded parallel to increasing criticism of take out, although some creators question the movement’s ef? cacy in challenging the seemingly ‘all powerful’ fast food industry (Jones et ‘s., 2003). Take out, according to Rothermel (2009), typically bland, chewy, corny, crunchy, salty, meaty, crazy, fatty, and frequently spicy, captivates the colour pallette quickly, repetitiously, and obsessively.

As such, fast food is consumed by a growing population, specifically in developed countries (Doherty and van Methodology The objective of this analyze is to offer an exploratory, initiatory analysis of the slow food–fast food contention as it features unfolded recently at the tourist destination of Victoria Falls. As a beginning point for upcoming research, the analysis highlights the perspectives of hoteliers, speci? cally meals and beverage managers. The philosophical way adopted with this study was hermeneutic (interpretive) phenomenology, and this is a research approach (LeVasseur, 2003; Lopez and Downloaded coming from thr. sagepub. com with the Hong Kong Polytechnic University upon March 16, 2013 Mkono Willis, 2004; Wojnar and Swanson, 2007).

The strategy was followed to make perception out of the local situation by providing a thick explanation (Denzin and Lincoln, 1994). The localised focus resulted in small-scale hypotheses that are located in speci? c personal experiences and perceptions (Riley and Love, 2000). The paper employs a very re? exive and multivocal methodology in which no single words is priviledged (Riley and Love, 2000).

Hermeneutic phenomenology is a specifically appropriate way for capturing very subjective perspectives and lived activities (Hegel, 1977; Ingram, 2002; Ironside ou al., 2003; Jonsdottir, 98; Knibbe and Versteeg, 2008; LeVasseur, 2003; Lopez and Willis, 2004; Murphy ou al., 2009; Pernecky and Jamal, 2010; Racher and Robinson, 2003; Ross ou al., 2007; Sherrod, 06\; Simpson, 3 years ago; Sinico, 2008; Szarycz, 2009; Wilde, the year 2003; Wojnar and Swanson, 2007). However , just a few hospitality experts have used this strategy (Ingram, 2002).

Hermeneutic phenomenology accepts that both the researcher and individuals cocreate an awareness of the tendency under research, while bringing into the analysis their own support frames of sources drawing from other different backgrounds (Wojnar and Swanson, 2007). Analysts under this kind of orientation will certainly therefore often attempt to recognize whatever biases they generated within the study, through a process of ‘bracketing’ (LeVasseur, 2003), explaining ‘where they are arriving from’. As such, the specialist here acknowledges her individual previous work experience in the motel industry in Victoria Declines as signi? cantly healthy diet her body of reference point throughout the study.

As Lopez and Willis (2004) dispute, in the interpretive phenomenological approach, the researcher’s presuppositions or previous expertise are useful guides for the analysis, and may make the inquiry more important. Wojnar and Swanson (2007) explain that hermeneutic phenomenology is most useful where the aim is to explicate contextual highlights of a lived experience while derived from the researcher’s and participants’ qualification, as well as their very own subjective experience and viewpoints. However , the researcher is usually not absolved of the responsibility to reduce, or if possible at all, eliminating personal biases in the? ndings of the study.

It is very dif? cult to get researchers to demarcate among bias and fact, as bias can be very subtle. Info were collected from 11 hotel meals and beverage managers. Food and beverage managers are definitely the hands-on foodstuff and drink operations decision makers who are immediately responsible for the afternoon to working day and longer term strategy of any hotel’s meals and refreshment operations. Naturally , other managers in the motel, such as restaurant managers, executive chefs, 149 guest associations managers and functions managers may also type into the food and beverage operations.

The researcher even so felt all their input was minimal in addition to most cases, involved more strategy implementation instead of strategy ingredients. Thus foodstuff and drink managers, while primary strategists in the meals and beverage department, had been identi? education as the main element informants in the hotels. Out of a judgement sample of 18 hotel managers in 18 accommodations (2 to 5 star) who were contacted by phone and asked in the event that they were readily available for an interview, 18 agreed and appointments had been set up. However , only 10 were therefore interviewed. The other a few could not take advantage themselves providing various factors including unexpected emergency meetings or perhaps busy agendas.

The investigator used a job interview guide to preserve focus inside the interviews. Questions were very open finished allowing interviewees to air flow their opinions freely. The investigation revolved about the two major research concerns: the level of menace posed by the emerging take out competition (if any), and hotel administration reactions.

Every interviews had been tape documented and transcribed manually, verbatim. Data examination was performed manually, through several phases, drawing coming from Benner’s (1994) hermeneutical research model delineated in Wojnar and Swanson (2007). The method began with reading and rereading transcripts reread to gain an intuitive feel intended for the data. Next, repetitious designs were identi? ed.

The researcher after that identi? male impotence exemplary rates to illustrate themes. Conclusions and debate The magnitude of threat The majority of managers felt that fast food corporations were turning into serious competition for motel restaurants: ‘‘It’s become a slight war actually. We have our appeal, although fast food eating places have ‘‘street” appeal.

You can expect? ne cusine. Both ideas have their charm, I guess. ” The ‘war’ referred to above is certainly not unique to Zimbabwe. Restaurant wars occurred in other places where fast food restaurants have came into the markets speedily (e. g. Watson and Caldwell, 2004).

Some managers reported that some of their guests were using their shuttle buses to ‘sneak out for a burger evening meal at a fast food cafe in town’. In addition , plus more worrying to get the motel industry in Victoria Declines, hotel foodstuff and refreshment sales had been reported to acquire been reduced signi? cantly due to take out entrance. This was a great concern as managers Downloaded from thr. sagepub. com at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University in March 16, 2013 150 reported the negative final conclusion impact of fast food restaurant expansion.

Nevertheless , others had been con? reduction of the competitive strengths of their hotel restaurants, perceiving no real risk from fast food. ‘‘I think tourists inside our hotel prefer to taste our full support men. It’s gourmet. Fast to me is definitely bland and ordinary.

In addition unhealthy. The food is usually prepared by first class chefs. ” Tourism and Hospitality Research 12(3) white water rafting for the Zambezi Water, elephant backside safaris, therefore on) may not be consistent with a slow vacation spot image, or a slow holiday segment. An additional interesting review made worried the in? uence of age in inclination for fast food: ‘‘It seems to me that it is our younger guests who might be specifically interested in take out.

The old folks are postpone by the noises in the fast food places”. The health implications regarding fast food and slow meals have been broadly discussed (Hodges, 2003; Search, 2004; Mair et approach., 2008; Wong, 2009). Certainly this could be the most important selling point pertaining to hotel meals over meals in this framework, especially if the market is predominantly health-conscious.

This requires further inquiry. One of the managers experienced that hotels’ competitive strength with respect to food and beverage was in the uniqueness and authenticity of their menus: ‘‘We sell repas that they can’t get anywhere else, our kudu and impala steak, for example. Our food is real Zimbabweanness. We all bring out the very best of Zimbabwean and Photography equipment food. ” Future research could check out further the validity with this observation much more causal, quantitative research. However , some existing research would suggest that more young people often prefer fast food compared to older people (Dave ainsi que al., 2009).

One administrator drew awareness of the attention paid out to feel in motel restaurants, quarrelling that this is an important source of difference from take out restaurants: ‘‘Our hotel restaurants have an exclusive ambience which fast food eating places simply cannot provide”. Authenticity is known as a core strategy in tourism research, in fact it is signi? cannot that lodge managers are engaged with this talk in their re? ection of work lived experiences. But to ascribe Zimbabweanness deepens to all of us to the complicated questions of who authenticates food because Zimbabwean or perhaps, what qualifying criterion must be used, and consequently to the queries of identity and, to get a multiethnic world that Zimbabwe is, ethnicity as well.

Without a doubt, ethnicity is a huge source of socio-cultural tension for representing Zimbabwean identity. However , this point produces a highly convoluted debate that cannot be treated in more depth in an disovery study such as this one. A single manager sensed that Victoria Falls was a destination for the ‘slow’ traveler, who recommended ‘slow’ products and services, so that there was no actual threat pertaining to hoteliers carried by the entry of take out.

The slow food–fast foodstuff contention can be described as topical a significant contemporary food management since it resonates with a nostalgic yearning for the past in modern society. ‘‘I think Victoria Falls allures more ‘slow oriented’ vacationers, I think. ” The role ambience in in? uencing customer satisfaction can be widely recognized. However a lot of fast food restaurants have made a few strides in managing the atmosphere within their restaurants. For example , the Jungle Cafe chain’s restaurant interiors depict a tropical jungle with fine detail such as plant growth, mist, waterfalls, animatronic robots of various animals and insects (Williams, 2002).

Thus hoteliers cannot become satisfied about their cafe ambience while sustainable causes of competitive advantage over all their fast food restaurant competition. The researcher asked whether the cheaper prices connected with fast food was a concern for hoteliers. Several managers agreed that price was in truth the major source of competition: ‘‘The trouble is a burger in a fast foodstuff restaurants costs little, claim three of four dollars. Each of our dinners expense them $30 dollars thereabouts.

So in the event the decision is definitely an economic one particular, especially where it’s a large family, the fast food restaurant is an inviting option. ” Poor performace is a contested phenomenon, in fact it is not clear slice what makes up slow. Even more, it is doubtful whether Victoria Falls should indeed be a place to go for slow tourists. Indeed, the adventure oriented activities that Exito Falls is often known for (bungee jumping, heli-copter? ights above Falls, cruise ships and Yet , some believed that there was clearly no common sense in contrasting hotel food prices with fast food rates; that accomplishing this would be comparable to comparing ‘oranges with bread’.

It is obvious then that hoteliers possess varying notion of who their opponents are: whether competition identifies other hoteliers, or whether it extends beyond the hotel industry. De? ning competition directly, however , will probably be detrimental to a hotel’s permanent competitive strength. Downloaded from thr. sagepub. com with the Hong Kong Polytechnic University about March 18, 2013 Mkono It was likewise highlighted simply by some managers that their particular clientele was ‘upmarket’ and so not very pricesensitive: ‘‘Most of our guests will be internationals…. and price is not their main criterion for choosing where they may be gonna take in. They do not travel on a restricted budget”. 151 Victoria Declines.

Hotels would need to think on a longer term basis if their strategies should defend them in the competitive risk effectively. One manager indicated apprehension regarding the potential ef? cacy of any potential reactive strategies, citing that tourists via countries exactly where fast food ingestion has become inbedded in way of living ‘‘can’t avoid a cheese burger”. Therefore to some extent, through this manager’s view, the battle was already lost.

Since for a few managers the real competition was lay in the differences in prices, it was unsurprising that accommodations were anticipated to bring down their very own prices. Indeed, this acquired already been done in some accommodations: ‘‘We have had to bring the prices down a little bit”. Hoteliers would need to address problem whether they want to target only the upmarket, or perhaps whether all their target market could be de? ned more commonly.

Considering that the government’s Seem East Insurance plan launched inside the early 2000s has captivated a lower spending, more price-sensitive Eastern marketplace, limiting the point market to af? uent high spenders might not be especially wise like a marketing strategy. Hotels therefore? nd themselves in a crossroads decision regarding if it makes more business sense to bring their prices down to are more competitive when confronted with fast food restaurant penetration, and accept any compromises this may bring to customers’ perceptions of their product and service top quality; or to continue to keep their price levels as they are in the hope that the lures a much more high spending, perhaps elitist market. An especially important level was the reference to health conscious visitors.

It was the belief of several managers which a signi? can’t proportion of tourists was becoming increasingly health-conscious, and was therefore willing to avoid consuming fast food: ‘‘Our guests generally are becoming incredibly health conscious. That they ask for low fat, sugar free etc . They will ask in the event our menu is organic and natural. They know they can’t get healthy choices at the take out restaurant. That’s a fact. ” However , several managers had been concerned about the result of cost cuts on their image. There were apprehension that tourists can assume that this was accompanied by a lowering of product and/ or service quality.

The relationship between value and top quality has been investigated in many promoting studies, suggesting that consumers perceptions of quality are definitely affected by selling price. The concept of the image for a few extended beyond an individual motel. The image of Victoria Declines as a visitor destination was seen as impacted by the growth of junk food supply. One of the respondents asserted that this could compromise the ‘luxury resort’ brand photo that Victoria Falls placed internationally: ‘‘Victoria is a high-end market vacation spot.

We are about luxury hotels, school. No offence to take out restaurants. ” Conclusion and suggested foreseeable future research Motel reactions Many managers thought that the competitive threat posed for accommodations by the growth of the fast food industry in Victoria Falls was critical enough to warrant reformulation of competitive strategies. Among the list of changes that hotels had to make was to change shuttle service buses’ routes so that they may not pass through take out restaurant places: ‘‘We might have to change the course for the shuttle.

The current pick up details are not good for us at almost all because take out shops happen to be staring at our guest immediately where they get acquired. ” However , such an alteration cannot give a permanent solutions as vacationers are not automatically restricted to the usage of hotels’ shuttle service buses intended for transport inside the study sought to investigate motel food and beverage managers’ experiences with and perspectives of growing fast food competition. As such, the paper increases a growing number of phenomenological studies in hospitality. Managers’ perspectives re? ect a lot of interesting problems.

Many of the replies suggest a signi? can’t level of complacency, a refusal to contract fast food the status of formidable competition. Some managers seem to believe it ‘beneath them’ to even worry about fast food, and more ‘beneath’ to interact in a ‘face-off ‘ with them. The more ‘digni? ed’ option appears to be to pretend that that junk food restaurants either do not are present at all, in order to feign not caring. This begs the question if this attitude is environmentally friendly in the long term.

The study also que tiene? rms the dynamic and volatile mother nature of the traveler market. In an African destination Downloaded coming from thr. sagepub. com on the Hong Kong Polytechnic University about March 16, 2013. 152 where junk food consumption is a huge once-in-awhile affair, the access of junk food is set to rede? nenni food and eating culture.

It is no longer a European phenomenon. What is also important to grasp is that junk food consumption is not restricted to the traveler market; that locals can also be a part of the industry. Future researchers might investigate the affects of fast food expansion on the local population’s food traditions, which will additional case study know-how on the so-called MacDonalisation of society.

Accommodations might have to begin actively concentrating on ‘slow tourists’. However , exploration on the qualities and way of engaging this kind of potentially developing market segment is still missing. It is hoped that more Photography equipment context-speci? c studies will probably be carried out around the expansion of fast food and its business and sociological impacts.

An inherent restriction concomitant to phenomenology may be the lack of generalisability of analysis? ndings. Because of the small test, the viewpoints represented here are not associated with any other framework, although some can be ‘transferable’ to similar resort destinations wherever fast food stores are beginning to markets that have previously been dominated by hotels. Foreseeable future researchers might want to engage in similar studies which has a larger sample of informants, and perhaps over a wider spatial scale. Such studies may employ quantitative methods to explain causal relationships and evaluation hypothesis, such as whether fast food entrance right into a traditional hotel dominated industry poses signi? cant risks to motel food and beverage expert? ts.

To complete the provision side point of view for this examine, fast food managers also need to become included in info collection in future perspectives. It would be interesting to look at why junk food restaurants decided to expand into the Victoria Falls right now, how they see the competition by hotels, that they have attempted to gain market share, and their views on slow food–fast food issue in an environment where junk food continues to be criticised as unhealthy. How are they building their defence from this onslaught? How can they carry on and thrive regardless of this worldwide onslaught?

What will become even more interesting would be to evaluate the? ndings made in a great African circumstance with those found in various other, perhaps different contexts. This kind of research had taken a source side bias, and thus fails to capture the perspectives of tourists who in fact make the choice between junk food and gradual food. Therefore future researchers might want to go after either a marketplace oriented approach, or better yet an integrative approach, which in turn combines the two supply side and buyer perspectives. In addition , future researchers who execute similar studies in tourist destinations Tourism and Hospitality Exploration 12(3) may utilise the broader notion of ‘slow tourism’ as a great analytical construction.

Thus foodstuff choice and consumption aren’t viewed just as functions in cusine, but probably as a microcosm of a considerably more complex ‘slow tourism’ sensation. References Allen KN, Taylor JS and Kuiper L (2007) Performance of nutrition education on fast food options in teenagers. The Journal of School Nursing 23(6): 337–341.

Bartlett Meters and Bartlett M (1995) Turning points or wrong turns? Eating places & Institutions 105: 12. Beer S (2008) Authenticity and food experience- industrial and educational perspectives.

Log of Foodservice 19(3): 153–163. Benner L (1994) Hermeneutic phenomenology: a methodology for family health insurance and promotion examine in nursing. In: Benner P (ed. ) Interpretive Phenomenology: Agreement, Caring, and Ethics in Health and Condition. California: Sage, pp. 71–72.

Berta Deb (2003) Arctic Circle junk food comes to hot-growth Utah suburb. Nation’s Restaurant News 37(12): 80. Blanck HM, Yaroch AL, Atienza AA, et al. (2009) Factors affecting lunchtime food choices among working Us citizens. Health Education & Habit 36(2): 289–301. Bowens T (1994) Excess fat profiles of your favorite pret a manger restaurant: just how do they measure up to recommended guidelines?

Record of Nutrition in Menu & Menu Development you: 47. Chandon P and Wansink N (2007) The biasing wellness halos of fastfood cafe health claims: lower caloric estimates and higher side-dish consumption intentions. Journal of Consumer Study 34: 301–314. Chaudhry Ur (1992) Fast-food seafood chains sell wellness, variety.

Eating places & Organizations 102: doze. Chhabra D (2010) Back in the past: a sub-segment of Generation Y’s perceptions of authenticity. Record of Sustainable Tourism 18(6): 793–809.? Cohen E (2007) Authenticity’ in tourism research: Apres la Lutte. Travel and leisure Recreation Study 32(2): 75–82.

Connell L (2007) The continuity of custom? Tourist perceptions of authenticity in Yakel Town, Tanna, Vanuatu. Journal of Tourism & Cultural Transform 5(2): 71–86.

Connell L and Gibson C (2004) World music: deterritorializing place and personality. Progress in Human Location 28(3): 342–361. Crowley Deb (2002) A promise is known as a promise. Golf club Industry (07478283) 18(8): doze.

Daniel YP (1996) Tourism dance performances: authenticity and creativity. Life of Travel and leisure Research 23: 780. Dork JM, A great LC, Jeffery RW, et al. (2009) Relationships of attitudes toward fast-food absorption in adults.

Unhealthy weight 17(6): 1164–1170. Doherty J and vehicle Warner L (1995) Casual themers be warned: fast food offers regained its competitive edge. Nation’s Cafe News, g. 19. Sold at: http://ezproxy. scu. edu. au/login? url? http:// search. ebscohost. com/login. aspx? direct? true&db? hjh&AN?

9502064211&sit? ehost-live. Dundes L and Swann To (2008) Foodstuff safety in fast food eating places. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism 7(2): 153–161. Emerson RL (1980) Expansion overseas: a solution to fast food’s slow development? Cornell Resort & Cafe Administration Quarterly 21(3): twenty four.

Fitch RADIO CONTROLLED, Harnack LJ, Neumark-Sztainer DOCTOR, et al. (2009) Providing calorie information about fast-food cafe menu boards: consumer sights. American Diary of Health Promotion twenty four: 129–132. Downloaded from thr. sagepub. com at The Hong Kong Polytechnic College or university on 03 14, 2013 Mkono Gardner S (2007) Slow changes in fast food. Foodservice & Food 39(12): 33–36.

Gray MT (2004) Philosophical inquiry in nursing: a spat for major empiricism being a philosophical construction for the phenomenology of addiction. Qualitative Health Exploration 14(8): 1151–1164. Grazin KL and Olsen JE (1997) Market segmentation for fast-food restaurants in an era of health awareness. Journal of Restaurant & Foodservice Promoting 2: 1 ) Gregory T, McTyre C and DiPietro RB (2006) Fast food to healthy food: a paradigm move.

International Record of Hospitality & Tourism Administration 7(4): 43–64. Hawkes C (2003) Heavy issue: food sector weighs straight down Americans with freedom of preference. Nation’s Cafe News 37(6): 44.

Hegel G (1977) Phenomenology of Spirit. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hodges T (2003) Brandwatch: in praise of gradual food. Locum Destination Review. p. 21. Hunt G (2004) Tough ride gradual food.

Meals Manufacture 79(9): 139–139. Ingram G (2002) Motivations for farm tourism hosts and guests inside the South West Tapestry Region, Traditional western Australia: a phenomenological analyze. Indo-Pacific Log of Phenomenology 2(1): 1–12. Ironside PM, Scheckel M, Wessels C, et ing. (2003) Experiencing chronic illness: cocreating fresh understandings. Qualitative Health Research 13(2): 171–183.

Jennings D (2006) Andre Guerrero slows fast food by newest cafe. Nation’s Cafe News forty five: 32–32. Johnson J (2002) Liberalism as well as the politics of cultural genuineness.

Politics, Beliefs & Economics 1(2): 213–236. Jonsdottir They would (1998) Your life patterns of people with persistent obstructive pulmonary disease: seclusion and being closed in. Nursing Science Quarterly 11(4): 160–166. Hwang JJ and Cranage D (2010) Customer overall health perceptions of selected fast-food restaurants in respect to their dietary knowledge and health consciousness. Journal of Foodservice Organization Research 13(2): 68–84.

Full P (2004) Orion meals systems: take out, quick growth–globally. Nation’s Cafe News 38(42): 34–34. Knibbe K and Versteeg S (2008) Assessing phenomenology in anthropology.

Analyze of Anthropology 28(1): 47–62. Lan T and Khan MA (1995) Hong Kong’s fast-food market. Cornell Lodge and Cafe Administration Quarterly 36(3): 34–41. LeVasseur JJ (2003) The challenge of bracketing in phenomenology.

Qualitative Wellness Research 13(3): 408–420. Lopez KA and Willis DG (2004) Detailed versus interpretive phenomenology: their particular contributions to nursing knowledge. Qualitative Wellness Research 14(5): 726–735. Mair H, Sumner J and Rotteau L (2008) The politics of eating: foodstuff practices while critically reflexive leisure.

Leisure/Loisir: Journal of the Canadian Connection for Amusement Studies 32(2): 379–405. Murphy SB, Moynihan MM and Banyard VL (2009) Going within the spiral. Affilia 24(2): 152–164. Parker RS, Schaefer AD and Hermans CM (2006) A study into teens’ attitudes toward fast-food brands in general: a crosscultural evaluation.

Journal of Foodservice Organization Research 9(4): 25–40. Parsa HG and Khan MA (1989) Examination of menu trends in fast food market. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Study 13(3): 545. Paxson L (2005) Sluggish food within a fat society. Gastronomica 5(1): 14–18.

Peace A (2008) Terra Madre 2006. Gastronomica 8(2): 31–39. 153 Pernecky T and Jamal Capital t (2010) (Hermeneutic) Phenomenology in tourism research. Annals of Tourism Exploration 37(4): 1055–1075.

Piggott H (2001) Proceed slow.