I. Pre-Socratic Period – also known as the Cosmological Period (cosmos meaning universe) *questions about human existence and subsistence (basic needs) Pre-Socratic Greek philosophers: – Anaxagoras – Thales (he held that water is the fundamental stuff of all things, saying “All is water”) – Anaximander – Xenophanes – Heraclitus – Anaximenes Empiricism – a theory which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience II.
Socratic Period – also known as the Era of Scientific Discoveries III. Church Period – also known as the Theological/Dogmatic Period. Dogmatic – from the word dogma (teachings of the Catholic church) Martin Luther – the most controversial bishop during his time; he questioned the teachings of the Catholic church IV. Rebellion Period – also known as the Period of Protestantism *Martin Luther started Protestantism and established the Lutheran church; he questioned the indispensability of the pontis and the institution of the sacraments (holy order and marriage) division of the Catholic church: – Roman Catholic – Greek Orthodox 4 legal systems: – English law – Roman law – Arabic/Mohammedan law – Anglo-American law.
V. Renaissance Period – renaissance meaning rebirth – also known as the Arts and Literature Period (which focused on religion) VI. Modern Period – also known as the Period of Industrialization? introduction to machines? social problem of unemployment arose? battle between man and machines 2 social classes:? bourgeoisie – the ruling class of the two basic classes of capitalist society, consisting of capitalists, manufacturers, bankers, and other employers.
The bourgeoisie owns the most important of the means of production, through which it exploits the working class?proletariat – the class of workers, especially industrial wage earners, who do not possess capital or property and must sell their labor to survive, the lowest or poorest class of people Friedrich Engels – mentor of Karl Marx *. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels campaigned for a classless society known as communism communism – the political and economic doctrine that aims to replace private property and a profit-based economy with public ownership and communal control of at least the major means of production (e. g. , mines, mills, and factories) and the natural resources of a society; people don’t have private ownership. Das Kapital – one of the major works of the 19th-century economist and philosopher Karl Marx (1818–83), in which he expounded his theory of the capitalist system, its dynamism, and its tendencies toward self-destruction.
He described his purpose as to lay bare “the economic law of motion of modern society. ” Lenin and Stalin – leaders of the Russian Revolution who first introduced communism COMMUNISM (zero ownership) SOCIALISM (ownership by few) DEMOCRACY (controlled by the majority of people) Definition of Philosophy – from the words “de finire” meaning “to limit” 3 types of definition: 1. Etymological – derived from the word “etymos” meaning “origin” Etymology of Philosophy by Pythagoras philia (love) sophia (wisdom) greek words 2. Nominal – derived from the word “nomen” meaning “name” 3. Real definition – maybe conceptual or operational definition Real definition of Philosophy a science of beings that investigates the ultimate causes of things, events, etc. , with the aid of human reason alone *philosophers investigate by asking questions human reason – the instrument in philosophy branches of science:? natural? social? Physical – botany philosophy e. g. physics e. g. e.g. beings – subject matter of philosophy; anything that exists 2 types of beings: a) potential – exists without intrinsic contradiction b) actual – exists with intrinsic contradiction uncreated God (theology – focused on the study of God) created living – man – plants – animals –soul–>–soul–>–soul–>rational vegetative sensitive non-living – world (cosmology – study with the universe) – outside the galaxy (metaphysics – from the word “meta” meaning “beyond”) guidelines of lifestyle soul existence spirit – principle of unity the actual man exclusive? – his characteristics qualities of gentleman:? body and soul (rational psychology – study of soul existence)? body without soul – corpse? spirit without body system – ghosting? intellect – to know the “truth” (logic – accurate reasoning; epistemology – validity of man knowledge)? will – searching for “good” (ethics or ethical philosophy) branches of beliefs connected to man rational mindset deals with spiritual techniques and religious beliefs logic – deals with mental and internal circumstances epistemology deals with physiological/bi ological feature ethics – deals with the physical facet of man Phenomenological method – method of learning man. Edmund Husserl – a mathematician, modern philosopher, and the key proponent of phenomenology steps in phenomenological method: i. epoche – method of bracketing man’s organic attitudes (e. g., biases or prejudices) ii. eidetic reduction – from the expression “eidos” that means “essence”; way of reducing the actions of the doj to it is essence to know the real need for the sensation iii. phenomenological transcendental decrease – way of reducing the essence to its subject matter? to the extremely activity on its own love – disinterested providing oneself to other getting kinds of love: – intimo. – paternal/maternal – lusty – passionate Understanding the Nature of Philosophical Inquiry *on the distinction between beliefs and normal science – natural scientific research? scientific analysis “What is Philosophy” by Lauer, T. J. (philosophy in physical science) *can philosophy be taught? – philosophy can be defined by doing it *why do we damage philosophy whenever we define that? – beliefs is essentially a dynamic method, the make an attempt to define you should stop the process *philosophy is usually an attitude, just one way of life, accountable thinking but not a self-discipline; not a body of knowledge.