Western Civilization Essay

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1. What were the goals of the Great Powers at the Congress of Vienna? What were their aims and how did they redraw the map of Europe in the wake of Napoleon’s defeat? What did the chief architects of the Congress, such as Metternich, hope to achieve? Congress of Vienna was a conservative group that aimed to develop peaceful international relations system Goal: achieve postwar stability by establishing secure states with guaranteed borders.

Restore regimes to original rulers Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic- united into a new kingdom German states- German Confederation that built on Napoleon’s Confederation of the Rhine Napoleon’s duchy of Warsaw became Kingdom of Poland and the tsar of Russia as the king. Prussia gained territory in Saxony and left bank of Rhine Austria claimed the Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia and the Dalmatian coast Metternich wanted to contain French aggression while maintaining France’s great power states Metternich >Austria; Castlereagh >Great Britain; Nesselrode >Russia; Hardenberg >Prussia; Tallerand>France Negotiated the Treaty of Paris Metternich led the Congress.

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France added as 5th wanted to restore power to divine right rulers “balanced power” and stability for Europe in the hands of the Main Powers. 2. Explain the emergence of Liberalism as a distinct political and social ideology in the early 19th century. Who were the 19th century liberals and how were they different from their modern counterparts of the same name? How did Liberalism differ from socialism and conservatism in the early 19th century?

The want to establish legal equality regardless of social order, religious toleration, freedom of the press, and freedom of the governed. It was allowed in order to prevent an uprising or revolution Adam Smith (Laissez- Faire economics), John Locke, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo >based tips on the theories of all-natural law and utilitarianism (economic liberalism) Not the same as socialism and conservatism 1820’s- thinkers require social title of home, not private ownership Idea that individual happiness can be gained simply by common ownership of real estate Conservatism- Opposed to revolution, desire to keep issues as they are reinforced monarchy and upper class power. 3. Publish an composition on the Romantic movement in the early 19th century?

The thing that was Romanticism a chemical reaction against? Evaluate the literary works, music, and art from the period to exhibit how Romanticism changed these kinds of genres or perhaps fields. [P. T. Did not just like too much with this “ism” due to time restrictions.

Please seek advice from your textual content: pp. 672-675; 598; 697] Imaginative, literary, mental movement that emphasized cosmetic experiences and natural savoir Supported free trade to benefit people Capitalism was necessary to move through before you get socialism. Materialist philosophy. 6. Analyze the causes and outcome with the Revolution of 1848 in France.

What were the different phases of this Revolution? What important lessons can you combine this Revolution? Explain. Cycles begin in Rome, not a good time to be living 7. Assess the propagate of wave in various elements of Europe in 1848-1849.

Go over the impact of revolutions within the Austrian Disposition, Prussia, the German Confederation, and the various Italian says. Why do all of these cycles fail? 1848- multiple cycles all over Europe, begin in Paris, france 1847- authorities forbade liberals from conference Instead hold banquets- celebrate George Washington’s birthday March 1848- government sent soldiers and shot them. Expression spread, Countrywide guard arrived and on the sides with the people. Louis Philippe resigned and fled to London.

Ferdinand promised a constitution, elected parliament, plus the end of censorship All of them failed because the various ideological movements quarreled, leaving an opening for rulers and their armies to return to power. Rulers come back but got very high objectives for politics participation, countrywide unification, and government responsiveness to sociable problems. almost 8. Write an essay around the causes and outcome from the Crimean Conflict (1853-1856). The thing that was the significance in the war in terms of international relationships?

How do this issue differ from earlier wars in terms of technology and weaponry? The Bosporus Straits and the Strait of the Dardanelles, the small rivers connecting the Black Sea to the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas. In 1854, the decaying Ottoman Empire handled that important waterway and Russia searched for increased electrical power in this region.

In 1853, St Petersburg demanded that the Ottoman Empire recognize Russia’s right to protect East Orthodox believers in Chicken. When Poultry refused, Russian federation sent soldiers into Ottoman territory Fearing increased Russian power and an upset to the balance of electrical power on the Continent, Great Britain and France announced war on Russian federation on Drive 28, 1854. In Sept.

2010 1854, the British and French set siege to Sevastopol, Russia’s heavily fortified chief naval base inside the Black Ocean, lying within the Crimean peninsula. After just below one year of constant fight, the Russian abandoned the fortress, blowing up their fortifications and tragedy their own boats. at local Balaklava, Uk troops incurred down a narrow valley that was flanked by Russian weapons on both sides. Nearly every British soldier fell dead in what came to be known as the Area of Death. (Light Brigade) Russia’s new tsar, Alexander II, sued for peace in 1856 In the ensuing Peace of Paris, Russian federation relinquished it is claim because Christian guard in Poultry, the Dark Sea was neutralized, plus the balance of power was maintained. being unfaithful.

Write an essay on the movement intended for Italian unification in the nineteenth century. Clarify the process by which Italy went from an accumulation independent states to a specific country. The movement to unite Italia into one ethnic and personal entity was known as the Risorgimento (literally, “resurgence”).

Giuseppe Mazzini and his leading pupil, Giuseppe Garibaldi led young Italian democrats whom used the 1848 revolutions as a chance for democratic uprising–failed in the face of the resurgence of conservative electric power in The european union Aristocratic politician named Camillo di Cavour who finally, using the equipment of realpolitik, united Italy under the top of Sardinia. “Realpolitik” is the notion that politics must be conducted in terms of the practical assessment of power as well as the self-interest of individual nation-states (and the pursuit of these interests by any means, often callous and chaotic ones) In 1855, because prime ressortchef (umgangssprachlich) of Sardinia, he involved the kingdom for the British and French aspect of the Crimean War, making use of the peace conference to give worldwide publicity for the cause of German unification. In 1858, he formed an alliance with France, one which included a pledge of military support if necessary, against Austria, Italy’s major obstacle to unification Austria reported war against Sardinia in 1859 and was conveniently defeated by the French military services The peace, signed in November late 1950s in Zurich, Switzerland, became a member of Lombardy, a formerly Austrian province, with Sardinia.

In exchange, France received Savoy and Nice by Italy central Italian pays of Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and Romagna voted for unification with Sardinia in the summer of 1859. 1860- Garibaldi came out of his self-imposed relegation to lead a latter working day Red Shirt army, known as the Thousand, in southern Italy. By the end with the year, Garibaldi had liberated Sicily and Naples, which in turn together constructed the Kingdom with the Two Sicilies. Cavour, nevertheless , worried that Garibaldi, a democrat, was replacing Sardinia, a constitutional monarchy, because the unifier of Italia Cavour purchased Sardinian soldiers into the Papal States as well as the Kingdom of Naples.

After securing important victories during these regions, Cavour organized plebiscites, or popular votes, to annex Bonita springs to Sardinia Garibaldi produced his areas to Cavour in the name of Italian language unification. Bismarck provoked a conflict with Austria over an unrelated border dispute and the subsequent Several Weeks’ War–named for its brevity–Prussia crushed the collapsing Austrian army. The peace negotiation transferred Holstein to Prussia and forced Austria to officially remove by itself from most German affairs. With Luxembourg out of Bismarck’s approach, his following obstacle was your skepticism from the southern provinces.

Catholic and anti-militaristic, the southern zone doubted Prussia’s commitment into a united Indonesia of all zone Prussia’s Protestantism and traditional militarism made the gulf between north and south quite significant. In 1870, Bismarck cast a note in the French legate, implying the ambassador had insulted the Prussian ruler. After this individual leaked this letter to both masse, the people of France and Prussia, roused by nationalist sentiment, flower up in benefit of warfare. In This summer 1870, England declared war on Prussia.

Within a matter of weeks of struggling with in Alsace-Lorraine, France shed this Franco-Prussian War. People from france not well prepared for war, Prussians were Prussians were able to mobilize rapidly, invaded France—catastrophe for England. Napoleon droped. 1870- Prussian Ruler William was declared emperor of Germany in Versailles Alsace-Lorraine was utilized in Germany inside the peace negotiation, allowing Prussia to announce the The german language Empire, or perhaps Second Reich, on January 21, 1871 13. Discuss the changing condition of ladies in the 19th century with regards to class, interpersonal disabilities, career patterns, and opportunities.

In addition , explore the Feminist struggle of the 19th century. What were the goals in the various Feminist movements? What did they achieve by way of a struggle?

Early on 19th century women got one place- the home 15. Analyze the roots of anti-Semitism in Europe in the 19th 100 years. What had been the causes of anti-Semitic thinking?

Assess the Dreyfus Affair and explain how come it serves as one of the best good examples for the strength of anti-Semitism at the end of 19th century Europe? See Chapter twenty four of your Textbook. 16.

Describe the roots, direction, and motivation of New Imperialism back in the 19th century. Headrick, Equipment of Disposition will be helpful in this question. New imperialism- scramble to get Asian and African assets 18. Evaluate some of the developments in European thought throughout the Belle-Époque (1870-1914).

Examine the trends in science, literature, and beliefs. What influence did technological change perform in these developments? Why would these developments lead some to adopt positivism while others felt significantly uncertain and anxious about the future? Make clear this paradox of increasing positive outlook and elevating anxiety. Seek advice from your book and my lecture notes. nineteen.

Explain the introduction of Realism and Naturalism in the literature and art of the past due 19th 100 years. How did this movement come about? The fact that was it re-acting against? How come was that a much more pessimistic movement compared to the earlier Passionate movement?

Compare Realism and Naturalism with Romanticism. What were the tenets of every movement? How were that they similar? Just how were they will different? How come was one more optimistic compared to the other?

Clarify. Realism- shows hypocrisy, fatigue that is in society Example- Flaubert had written Madame Bovary—depicts colorless existence in France in the search for love Materialism- determinism are just like animals susceptible to passion Public face reality but no solution twenty. Write an essay on the Bismarckian Connections system in Europe (1870-1910).

What was the foundation of this program. How made it happen come about? For what reason was the system that Bismarck put in place a flawed 1? How made it happen breakdown following your dismissal of Bismarck since Chancellor? The fact that was the system that replaced that?

21. Talk about the roots and causes in the First Globe War. What were the political, social, and ideological reasons for the war? Make clear in great detail every cause. The french language and Russian arms expenditures- 80%; Germany- 120% Fight of Somme, first working day was the most severe for the British- shed 60% of officers and 40% of rank in first time? gained six miles in this battle Misplaced Generation- survivors- life has not been the same on their behalf Terms Classical liberalism – The monetary and personal philosophy that opposed state intervention in economic affairs, supported free trade, competition, and individual initiative since the key to success; this kind of philosophy was, above all, an attack upon privilege, around the aristocrats, on the Anglican Church; liberals thought that expertise alone should certainly dictate a man’s progression in the world; recognized in England simply by William Gladstone.

Conservatism – A personal and monetary philosophy that supported state intervention in the economy for the disadvantaged; supported the upkeep of traditional institutions of privilege in the name of preservation of tradition and custom that worked in past times; supported in britain by Benjamin Disraeli. Holland Assembly – May 1848-June 1849. German born national parliament that tried and failed to make a united German state during the 1848 revolutions.

First conference in May 1848, the convention was filled by central class detrimental servants, lawyers, and intellectuals dedicated to generous reform. Nevertheless , after attracting the restrictions for a German state and offering the crown to Friedrich Wilhelm, the Kaiser refused in March 1849, dooming desires for a united, liberal Philippines, and the The netherlands assembly mixed soon after. Peace of Rome – 1856; ended the Crimean Conflict; Russia relinquished its claim as the protector of Christianity inside the Ottoman Empire and the Dark Sea was neutralized among all powers; solidified a complete beat for The ussr.

Plebiscites – Popular votes on one query or concern on the ballot; Camillo dalam Cavour used these to legitimize Sardinia’s role while the central nation in unification when he arranged these votes in each and every province being annexed by simply Sardinia in to the Italian condition. Realpolitik – The notion that politics must be conducted with regards to the reasonable assessment of power as well as the self-interest of individual nation-states, and the quest for those passions by any means, frequently ruthless and violent kinds; used masterfully by Camillo di Cavour and Otto von Bismarck in their guidelines toward countrywide unification.

Risorgimento – Literally, “resurgence”; the name given to the movement for Italian unification as the movement expected to bring Italy back to their former old glory through unification as one political entity; succeeded with proclamation of Italian point out in 1861, finally completed with annexation of Rome in 1870. Serfdom – A great institution in Russia and several eastern Western european states through which peasants were legally associated with the area that they farmed and could not really leave that land without expressed agreement from the souverain or landowner; created a great immobile peasantry and a type of slavery; finished with the Emancipation of 1861.

People Alexander II – Russian Tsar 1855-1881; known as the reformer to get his Superb Reforms software that included changes in education, judicial issues, military openness, and expression freedom; released the Emancipation edict of 1861 to free the serfs; nevertheless his record only shows him as a half-hearted reformer, never really enthusiastic about compromising any element of his power; assassinated in 1881 by a major because of his lackluster performance as a reformer. Otto vonseiten Bismarck – 1815-1898; German chancellor and architect of German concentration under the Prussian crown; callously used realpolitik in his efforts; instigated created conflicts with Denmark, Luxembourg, and England to acquire the land this individual believed should be part of the German born Empire.

Camillo di Cavour – 1810-1861; Sardinian excellent minister and architect of Italian concentration under Sardinia’s crown; masterfully used realpolitik and his understanding of international relationships to enhance Sardinia’s stature as being a European power and use the French-Austrian issue to his advantage. Charles Darwin – 1809-1882; science tecnistions, biologist. Sparked by a trip to the Galapagos Islands for the HMS Beagle, Darwin released On the Origins of Varieties By Means of Organic Selection in 1859.

Darwin’s ideas significantly affected social self-conception, tough the uniqueness of person and the relationship of man to God, spurring the introduction of the scientific field of evolution and less scientific tips such as Social Darwinism. Benjamin Disraeli – 1804-1881; leader of the Conventional Party,  dedicated to government intervention as well as the maintenance of traditional institutions of privilege intended for tradition and stability uses; his federal government passed the Factory Act of 1875, establishing a maximum of a fifty-six hour work-week; people Health Act, establishing a sanitary code; the Artisans Dwelling Act, defining minimum housing criteria; and the Trade Union Take action, permitting picketing and other peaceful labor techniques.

Giuseppe Garibaldi – Italian language patriot, liberal, and liberty fighter; when Italian concentration seemed conceivable, after the beat of Austria, he led a legion of German fighters through the Kingdom of Naples, separated province after province to create a unified German state; required to relinquish his territory to Camillo dalam Cavour’s Sardinian lands in the name of unification. William Gladstone – 1809-1898; head of the Open-handed Party in Great Britain, though started his profession as a Tory; main supporter of the tolerante approach to government–no tariffs, cost-free trade, not any government treatment; his govt abolished charges, cut defense spending, lowered taxes, stored budgets well balanced, reformed the civil service into a merit-based promotion program, and made general education offered to and necessary for everyone.

Georges Haussmann – 1809-1891; key architect of the redesigned Paris, france under Napoleon III; praised for his complete disregard pertaining to established local communities when he redesigned Paris like a home for the upper and middle class bourgeoisie of England; Haussman’s re-designed Paris, reputed for its large boulevards, direct roads, museums, and excellent arrangement, as a result served while the unit for many other urban centers throughout the world. Abraham Lincoln – American chief executive, elected 1860; led Union during the American Civil War and devoted himself for the forcible reunification of the United States. Start to see the SparkNote about Abraham Lincoln.

Karl Marx – 1818-1883; German personal philosopher and founder of scientific socialism; published the Communist Lampante in 1848 and Dieses Kapital in 1867. Giuseppe Mazzini – Italian patriot and democrat committed to the unification of Italy under a liberal democratic government; head of the Fresh Italy organization, a group of mostly Italian youth adults and democrats who pledged to job toward a united democratic Italy.

Napoleon III – 1808-1873; earlier Louis Napoleon and nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte; received in the usa president election in France in December 1848, but got dictatorial forces on Dec 2, 1851 and had taken the monarchical title; can be considered the initially modern presidential candidate due to his mastery of communication and appearances to keep up the magnificence of France; known for his economic success, rejuvenation of Paris, and support of Italian concentration; defeated in Franco-Prussian War. Events American Civil Conflict – 1861-1865; conflict between the North plus the Confederate South over states’ rights, federalism, economic legal rights, and, at some level, slavery. The Civil War was among the the forcible unification of any union employing realpolitik.

Crimean War – 1853-1856; war that rough Russia up against the alliance of england, France, the Ottoman Disposition, and the Kingdom of Sardinia; Russia wished warm water jacks on Dark-colored Sea and thus hoped to take advantage of weakening Ottoman Empire; Portugal and Great britain feared an upset towards the balance of power in Europe; emerged as an absolute military wipe out for The ussr. Emancipation with the serfs – 1861; by Emancipation Edict offered by Alexander II; concluded the institution of serfdom in Spain after decades of it is use; most probably done as the government required an effective pool of males from which it might conscript countless numbers into the armed service; after the wipe out in the Crimean War, this was one of the initiatives taken to strengthen the fragile Russian armed forces.

Franco-Prussian Battle – July-September 1870; conflict between England and Prussia over a fabricated insult allegedly made by the French ambassador to the Prussia king; Prussia defeated Portugal and her own area and got Alsace-Lorraine via France and laid duress to Paris, france until the region gave in; overthrew the us government and set up a parliamentary system in Paris. Superb Reforms – Tsar Alexander II’s alterations that he directed from above; changes in education, the judiciary, the armed service, expression legal rights, etcetera most seemed to follow an educated, liberal perspective; however , after careful report on these reforms, it is obvious that these were grudging reconstructs with tiny real transform.

Sevastopol – 1854-1855; Russia’s heavily fortified chief nautico base inside the Black Ocean, lying for the Crimean peninsula; after just below one year of constant struggle and becoming under duress by French an British, the Russian abandoned the fortress, blowing up their retraite and settling their own ships; one example in the harsh battles of the marketing campaign. Seven Weeks’ War – 1866; conflict between Prussia and Luxembourg, named due to its very short duration; was a fabricated conflict more than administration of Holstein; total victory pertaining to Prussia; Prussia gained Holstein and put an end to all Austrian involvement in German affairs, clearing a major obstacle to German unification.